History Podcasts

Inmam DE-526 - History

Inmam DE-526 - History

Inmam

(DE~26: dp. 1,140 1. 280'5", b. 35'1", dr. 8'3", s. 21 k.;
Cpl. 156; a. 3 3" 4 1.1", 9 20mm., 2 act., 8 dcp., 1 dcp.
(h.h.); cl. Evarts)

Inman (DE-526) was launched 2 November 1943 by Boston Navy Yard, Boston, Mass., accepted and transferred to Great Britain 13 January 1944 under LendLease, This and other Fvarts-class DE's formed the Captain class in the Royal Navy and played a vital part in allied antisubmarine operations in the Atlantic. Inman was returned to the Navy 1 March 1946. She was sold to G. H. Nutman, Ine., Brooklyn, N.Y., in November 1946 and subsequently scrapped.


Cold Mountain's Inman: Fact Versus Fiction

Detail of cover jacket of William P. Inman s compiled military service record for service in Company F, Twenty-fifth North Carolina Infantry Regiment. (War Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 109)

Author Charles Frazier has turned a Civil War tale of a Confederate soldier into a best-selling book and blockbuster movie, Cold Mountain. The protagonist of the story is a man named Inman, who served with the Confederate army during the Civil War.

The story begins with Inman deserting from a hospital in Raleigh, North Carolina, where he was recovering from a neck wound he received at Petersburg, Virginia. The tale then revolves around Inman's journey home to Cold Mountain, in western North Carolina, to reunite with his love, Ada Monroe. Before reaching home, Inman is gunned down by local home guards.

Was there a real Inman? If so, do records exist in the National Archives that relate to him and his possible service in the Civil War?

The answer to the first question is yes, there was a person named Inman. In the last line of the book's acknowledgments, the author apologizes for the "great liberties" taken with W. P. Inman's life. The author based the book on the Civil War service of William P. Inman, Twenty-fifth North Carolina Infantry Regiment. The answer to the second question would have been more difficult to answer if it had not been for the remarkable efforts of a former War Department adjutant general, Fred C. Ainsworth.

Ainsworth headed the office that created the compiled military service records for soldiers who served in Union and Confederate volunteer organizations. During the period 1886–1912, the War Department, specifically the Record and Pension Office, a unit in the Adjutant General's Office, created more than six million cards for Confederate army volunteers.

Compiled military service records are essentially records transcribed from other sources. Information from company muster rolls, regimental returns, descriptive books, hospital rolls, prison records, and other records was copied verbatim onto cards. A separate card was prepared each time an individual name appeared on a document. Therefore, instead of searching for William P. Inman's name through fragile, unwieldy documents such as returns, muster rolls, hospital registers, etc., a researcher can find information on him in a compiled military service record.

Interestingly, Frazier reveals in one of his interviews that he was able to get information on Inman's Civil War service through the North Carolina State Archives. All of the Confederate compiled military service records were reproduced on National Archives microfilm many years ago, and microfilm copies are available at various southern state archives and patriotic, civic, and historical associations.

The company muster roll indicates that Inman had deserted from his unit but was pardoned. (War Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 109)

In Record Group 109, War Department Collection of Confederate Records, there is a compiled military service record for a Pvt. William P. Inman who served in Company F, Twenty-fifth North Carolina Infantry Regiment. The first card provides some personal information. His physical description is listed as five feet, seven inches tall with dark hair and a fair complexion. Inman, from Haywood County, North Carolina, was twenty-two years old at the time of his enlistment. He enrolled for duty with Capt. Thomas I. Lenoir's Company of the Twenty-fifth North Carolina State Troops in Haywood County on June 29, 1861. The unit mustered into state service on July 20. Later, Lenoir's company was changed to Company F of the Twenty-fifth North Carolina Infantry Regiment and entered into Confederate service on October 22, 1861, at Camp Davis, near Wilmington, North Carolina.

Inman's service record shows that he was wounded July 1, 1862, at the Battle of Malvern Hill, Virginia, a major engagement that ended the Seven Days Campaign and Union Gen. George B. McClellan's attempt to take Richmond. Inman deserted on September 5, 1862, twelve days before his regiment saw action at the Battle of Antietam, Maryland. Inman returned to his company on November 19, 1862. The records state that he was pardoned for this offense. The service record reveals that he was present for the remainder of the year, was with the Twenty-fifth North Carolina when it saw action at Fredericksburg, Virginia (December 1862), and was with his unit for all of 1863.

During the summer of 1864, the Twenty-fifth North Carolina participated in the siege of Petersburg, Virginia (June 1864–April 1865). Part of that action, known as the "Battle of the Crater" (July 30, 1864), is where the movie Cold Mountain begins. It was at the Crater that W. P. Inman was wounded. His compiled military service record reveals that he was admitted to a general hospital in Petersburg, Virginia, on August 21, 1864, due to a gunshot wound to the neck. He was later transferred to hospitals in Danville, Virginia, and Raleigh, North Carolina. On October 11, 1864, he was discharged from the hospital in Raleigh to return to duty. According to the card transcribed from the November–December 1864 unit muster rolls, Inman deserted from the hospital in Raleigh, North Carolina, and was dropped from the roll on November 2, 1864.

This card in Inman s service record shows that he deserted from the hospital in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1864. This was the second time Inman deserted from the Confederate army. (War Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 109)

Finally, the last card in Inman's compiled military service record reveals that he signed an oath of allegiance to the United States during the month ending December 31, 1864, in East Tennessee. A note in the remarks section reveals that "[Inman] deserted the Rebels, Greensboro, North Carolina, January 15, 1863."

How can that be? According to the previous information in his compiled service record, he was present with his unit for all of 1863 and most of 1864. He was wounded at the Battle of the Crater on July 30, 1864, and his name appears as being present during that action. Why Inman gave this information to the Federal authorities cannot be fully known, for it contradicts information found in the unit muster rolls. Further clues might be revealed if the document related to the oath of allegiance could be located.

In very rare cases, additional information can be gleaned from related documents highlighted in the compiled military service record. Inman's service record card notes that he signed an oath of allegiance in the office of the Provost Marshal General of East Tennessee in December 1864, but the place where he swore the oath is not listed. A search through several series in Record Group 109 failed to turn up any listing for oaths of allegiance filed under "East Tennessee." The volumes in Entry 204 that record oaths of allegiance, however, reveal that Inman signed his oath in Knoxville, Tennessee, in the office of Brigadier General Carter. The provost marshal turns out to be Brig. Gen. Samuel Powhatan Carter, notable for being the only officer to attain the rank of major general in the U.S. Army and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy. Carter's cover letter to the War Department transmitting the list of "rebel deserters" who took the oath in his office in December 1864 is found in Record Group 249, Records of the Commissary General of Prisoners.

Inman's compiled military service record reveals that he deserted the Rebels and signed an oath of allegiance to the United States. (War Department Collection of Confederate Records, RG 109)

Now the search could return to Record Group 109, Entry 199, for records filed under Knoxville. There, on the original list of rebel deserters, is Inman's mark (the letter "X"). More intriguing, Inman is listed on the oath of allegiance list with an L. H. Inman who also served in Company F, Twenty-fifth North Carolina Infantry, and was from Haywood County, North Carolina. It turns out that L. H. Inman and W. P. Inman were brothers. Searching the federal population census schedules for Haywood County, North Carolina, we find the Inman brothers listed in the household of Joseph (Joshua) and Mary Inman in 1850.

In fact, all five of W. P. Inman's brothers served in the Civil War. Joshua and Lewis served alongside their brother William in Company F of the Twenty-fifth North Carolina. The other three, James, Daniel, and Joseph, served in Company I of the Sixty-second North Carolina.

According to his service record, Lewis H. Inman enrolled on the same day and in the same company as his brother William. Other facets of their wartime service also mirror each other. Both Inmans deserted their company on September 5, 1862, and returned to the unit on November 19. They were both pardoned for their offenses. Both privates later appear in Knoxville when they sign their oaths of allegiance. Could Wiliam Inman, whose lone journey home depicted in Cold Mountain, have been headed home with one of his brothers instead? Lewis survived the war, but according to family oral history, W. P. Inman was killed by Teague's Home Guard approximately three to four miles from his home. The records don't answer the question definitively but rather lead to more speculation and conjecture.

Many researchers come to the National Archives each year to explore Civil War records. Sometimes digging deeper into federal records can reveal answers to long-standing questions, make or break family tales, or uncover a story behind the story. Other times contradictions in family history or even other federal records are never resolved, such as the notation that Inman deserted in Greensboro in 1863 while other records show he was present with his unit at the time.

Civil War records at the National Archives go far beyond famous generals and battles. They can reveal more about a little-known private in the Confederate army whose descendant later wrote a best-selling book. Or they may shed light on one of your own ancestors who fought in the Civil War as an obscure private. Much as Inman trudged back to Cold Mountain facing trials and tribulations, researchers sometimes encounter unforeseen challenges as they follow the trail of records. But hopefully the researcher, unlike Inman, will find that the fun lies in the journey.

Richard W. Peuser is a supervisory archivist for the Old Military and Civil Records unit at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C. He is a contributor to Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War (1996) and Naval Warfare: An International Encyclopedia (2002) and the author of "Documenting United States Naval Activities during the Spanish American War," Prologue (Spring 1998).

Trevor K. Plante is a reference archivist in the Old Military and Civil Records unit at the National Archives and Records Administration who specializes in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century military records. He is an active lecturer at the National Archives and a frequent contributor to Prologue.


Vintage Diesel Design

In 1948, the Lehigh Valley Railroad put in an order for a quartet of tugboats. The tugs, designed by TAMS Inc. Naval Architects under Richard Cook and Joseph Hack, were a typical 106’ harbor tug. I will get into this more in a future topic (or whenever I get my damn book finished!). The Diesel-Electric tugs were powered through a package put together by General Motors Diesel – Cleveland Diesel main engine, Detroit Diesel generators, Allis-Chalmers main generator, Westinghouse propulsion motor, and electrical gear provided by Lakeshore Electric. Construction of the tugs began in early 1949 at Jakobson Shipyard in Oyster Bay, Long Island. The tugs would be named the “Wilkes-Barre”, “Hazleton”, “Cornell”, and “Lehigh”. The 4 tugs were identical, with the exception that “Cornell” and “Lehigh” had wheelhouses slightly lower than the other pair for serving the isolated terminals on the Harlem River.

The tugs were powered by the typical Cleveland Diesel Navy Propulsion Package. A 16-278A engine, rated at 1655HP driving an Allis-Chalmers 1090kW DC generator, mounted on a common base. In turn, this powered a Westinghouse 1380HP propulsion motor, driving a 10’ propeller through a Farrel-Birmingham 4.132:1 reduction gear. At the time, WWII surplus equipment was vast. Cleveland Diesel was acquiring little used engines from various craft and giving them a complete rebuild to as new condition, complete with new serial numbers. The main generators and propulsion motors were both surplus Destroyer-Escort surplus equipment as well.

“Cornell” was launched on April 4 th , 1950. After launching, diver Edward Christiansen went down to remove launching timbers. One of the large pieces of wood broke and not only pinned him against the tug, but also pinched off his airline. His son Norman led a rescue effort, and in 21 minutes were able to get him back up to the surface after using a yard crane to roll the tug slightly. Once on the surface, firefighters were able to revive Edward, and he was taken to the hospital.

The “Four Aces” was a publicity photo arranged by Cleveland Diesel. This was used, both colorized and Black & White, in several publications of the era.

Cleveland Diesel order #5782 consisted of the following engines:

“Wilkes Barre”– Original engine #55341, installed in US Navy “LSM-277”, shipped 9/5/1944. Engine removed upon decommissioning, factory rebuilt, and assigned new engine #55944 upon being shipped 5/13/1949 for use by LV.

“Hazleton” Original engine #55342, installed in US Navy “LSM-277”, shipped 9/5/1944. Engine removed upon decommissioning, factory rebuilt, and assigned new engine #55945 upon being shipped 5/13/1949 for use by LV.

Cornell”– Original engine #12001, installed in US Navy DE-526 “Inman”, shipped 10/15/1943. Engine removed upon decommissioning, factory rebuilt, and assigned new engine #55946 upon being shipped 8/29/1949 for use by LV. This engine was replaced 12/1950 with factory rebuilt engine #55956 (engine only, less base & generator, shipped 12/15/1950), originally from “LSM-184”, engine #55347, shipped 9/7/1944.

“Lehigh”– Original engine #55654, installed in US Navy “LSM-436”, shipped 1/23/1945. Engine removed upon decommissioning, factory rebuilt, and assigned new engine #55946 upon being shipped 3/21/1950 for use by LV. In the early 1990s, while owned by Moran Towing, the “Lehigh” (then called “Swan Point”) received the engine from the scrapped NY Cross Harbor tug “Brooklyn III”, the former New Haven tug “Cordelia”, which was a WWII surplus engine like all of the rest, originally in Navy DE-259 “William C. Miller”, which is ironic, as the Bethlehem below, also received one of her engines.

Lehigh Valley would return in 1951/53 for two more tugs of the same design, with some slight differences. These tugs were powered by the same propulsion package, of WWII surplus equipment.

Cleveland Diesel order #8112:

“Capmoore” Original engine #11734, installed in US Navy DE-259 “Wm. C. Miller” , shipped 5/1/1943. Engine removed upon decommissioning, factory rebuilt, and assigned new engine #55964 upon being shipped 4/19/1951 for use by LV.

Cleveland Diesel order #314

“Bethlehem”– Original engine #11736, installed in US Navy DE-259 “Wm. C. Miller”, shipped 5/1/1943. Engine removed upon decommissioning, factory rebuilt, and assigned new engine #55966 upon being sold for commercial use. Original order canceled, reassigned engine #55991 upon being shipped 5/8/1953 for use by LV. “Bethlehem” was re-powered by an Alco 16-251 in the early 1990s, and is the only other surviving LVRR tug, now working in Guyana.

Naturally, with the downfall of the railroads maritime traffic, the railroad would start selling the tugs off starting in the early 1960s. “Cornell” would last until 1970, with Bethlehem being the final LV tug, sold off in 1976. As noted above, for an unknown reason, the engine in the “Cornell” failed almost immediately after delivery and the bare engine (no base or generator) was replaced by Cleveland.

The US Fleet Tug “USS Cabezon” – SS 334, slid down the ways of Electric Boat in Groton, CT on August 27 th , 1944, sponsored by Mrs. T. Ross Cooley. “Cabezon” was on the tail end of WWII sub construction, specifically part of the 120 boat Balao class. Construction started with her keel laying on November 18 th , 1943. She was placed into service on December 30 th , 1944, and after training went on to Pearl Harbor in April of 1945, under the command of George W. Lautrup Jr., making this his 10 WWII patrol.

Launching of the fleet sub “Cabezon” at Electric Boat. USN photo # 80-G-448206 from National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), College Park, Maryland, courtesy of Sean Hert via Navsouce.org. Click for Larger.

“Cabezon” was powered by 4 Cleveland Diesel, 1600HP 16-278A engines, driving 4 GE 1100kW DC generators, with 4 GE 1375HP propulsion motors, rated for 5400HP on the surface and 2740 submerged. She had a single Cleveland 8-268A 300kW auxiliary diesel, and 256 Exide VLA47B battery’s.

Order sheets for the 4 main engines in the sub “Cabezon”, part of navy order NOBs 214/CDED 5413. J.S. Boggess Collection. Click for larger. Cleveland 16-278A located in the sub “Becuna”, SS-319. “Becuna” is one of the sisters of “Cabezon”. Click for larger.

After arriving in Pearl, “Cabezon’s” crew underwent more training. During which an accident occurred. The 4 outer rear torpedo tube doors were opened, while 2 of the inner doors were open. The sub immediately began to flood. Reid Harrison Peach Jr., TM1c, William Cliffard Markland, TM1c and Brownie Walter Szozygiel, TM1c were each awarded the Navy Marine Corps medal for their action in saving the sub.

An interested experiement conducted by the “Cabezon” early into her first patrol. From “Cabezon’s” War Patrol Report. Click for larger.

“Cabezon” went on her first WWII patrol starting May 25 th , 1945, in the Okhotsk Sea and Kurile Islands, operating in attack task group 17.15 with subs “USS Apogon”, “USS Dace” and “USS Manta”. “Cabezon’s” war patrol report is fairly tame, being so late into the war. On June 1 st , they spotted a floating mine, which they sunk with the .50 caliber machine gun. A second was spotted June 6 th , which exploded after they hit it with the .50 cal. On June 18 th , “Apogon” made contact with a Japanese convoy, attacked and sunk 3 ships by midnight. At 0130, another contact was made, in range of “Cabezon”. After 30 minutes of pursuit, she launched 3 Mk. 18-2 torpedoes from 2250 yards. Two hits were observed from the bridge, as well as 3 timed explosions, and the contact was reported sinking at 0223. June 29 th – Another contact made at 2145, lasting until 0025, when it was discovered a shorting out heater was the cause. “Cabezon’s” war patrol ended July 10 th , when she arrived at Midway.

“Cabezon” would be credited with sinking one unidentified Japanese escort (Later identified as the “Zaosan Maru”), rated at 4000 tons. 103,485 gallons of fuel were used during the trip, which covered 10,275 miles. She had 21 torpedoes, 32,510 gallons of fuel and provisions left for 15 days. “Cabezon” went on to Pearl for her refit period and left for Saipan on August 4 th . Hours before leaving for her 2 nd patrol, WWII ended. “Cabezon” stayed in the area, providing targeting practice for surface ships, before leaving for the Philippine Islands in early September to become part of the new Submarine Squadron 5, with subs “USS Chub”, “USS Brill”, “USS Bugara”, “USS Bumper”, “USS Sea Dog”, “USS Sea Devil” and “USS Sea Fox”. In December, Squadron 5 returned to Manilla, and joined up with the “USS Chanticleer” and Destroyer Escorts “Earl K. Olsen” and “Slater” (Now a fantastic museum ship in Albany) for training exercises. “Cabezon” would go on to do a short stint in San Diego, and later Pearl Harbor, doing trips for the Naval Reserve. In 1947, she took part in Operation Blue Nose, exploring under the Polar Ice Caps along with subs “USS Boarfish”, “USS Caiman” and tender “USS USS Nereus”. “Cabezons” final trips would be in two reconnaissance patrols, one in March-July of 1950, and the 2 nd April-October of 1952 between Hokkaido Japan, and Sakhalin, USSR.

“Cabezon” would set out for Mare Island in April of 1953 where she was laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet. She was recommissioned in April of 1960 as a Naval Reserve Training boat in Tacoma Washington, and reclassed in 1962 as an Auxiliary Research Submarine, until being decommissioned in 1970. She was struck from the roster on May 15 th , 1970, and sold for scrap to Zidell Explorations, of Portland Oregon in December of 1971, for $69,230.

While on Patrol, “Cabezon” had a unique engine failure, as outlined in her war patrol report below. #4 main engine, is one of the Portside engines on the sub, on the after end (#2 and #4 are Port, #1 and #3 Starboard). The port engines are both left hand rotation engines.

From “Cabezon’s” War Patrol Report. Click for larger.

In 1970, Lehigh Valley sold the tug to Ross Towboat, of Boston Massachusetts, keeping her original name in the process. Ross was actively engaged in Ship Docking, as well as barge towing in Boston, as well as all New England. Ross would do some slight modifications to the tug, including adding an internal staircase to access the pilothouse, as well as add a full galley and staterooms to have a full-time crew on board, whereas the tug did only 8-hour day work for LVRR. In early 1972 the tug had a catastrophic main engine failure. Thanks to my friend Douglas Della Porta of Eastern Towboat, he recounted the story of what happened.

Port side of the main engine in the tug “Cornell”. Click for larger.

While transiting the Cape Cod Canal, the tug lost oil pressure. Unfortunately, they needed to keep moving, and thus at the end of the day, the engine was destroyed. Ross found an engine out West – Engine 14974, and installed it in the tug as a replacement – The 3 rd engine in the “Cornell” (same exact model every time). This is the engine still in the “Cornell” today. Several years ago, my good friend J. Boggess presented me with the Cleveland records above, which is when we found out the engine in the “Cornell”, was actually from the “Cabezon”. There is a 50/50 shot that this is the engine that was almost destroyed while in the “Cabezon” as noted above.

This past July I embarked on a project I have been planning for some time – To repaint the engine finally. “Cornell” was a working boat – And shes a leaker (like all 278’s…EMD learned from this mistake, and put a box around them all!), thus painting was never a huge priority. Since being retired from towing service this year, and with some downtime, I got to it. The project commenced on the Starboard side, with 2 gallons of de-greaser, and lots of rags. I opted to paint her in Aluminum, the original color Cleveland Diesel painted all of their engines. Ill tell you – it was bright. Many years ago, one of the first things I painted on “Cornell” was the fuel lines on the block. Tugs typically have a good portion of the pipelines color coded for easy spotting of what they do – thus yellow for fuel. After repainting the fuel lines yellow, and the over speed trip line brown, I painted the hand hole knobs black, just to help break it up a bit, and give it a bit of her own character.

An individual pack. Click for larger.

Something on my wish list for several years has been a Cleveland Diesel issued 278A manual, specifically for a submarine. I was able to track one down earlier this year, and best of all, it is specific to the engine in the Cornell.

How the engine appeared out of the factory for the subs. Note it looks like the valve covers are actually polished! When put in the tug, the governor’s were switched over to Marquette’s, as well as the lay shaft arrangement to the more traditional, chest height one. Click for larger. “Cabezon’s” insignia. At some point, I plan to paint this on the air intake.

“Cornell” spent the better part of the 1970’s for Ross, doing all kinds of odd jobs, including a long trip up to Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin to pick up the Boston Aquariums new barge. Not long after the engine was swapped, the main generator, quite literally let loose while towing a barge, and was also swapped out. She would go on to work for Boston Fuel Transport/Boston Towing until being sold privately in 2003, and ultimately to Lehigh Maritime Corp. in 2007.

Ill close this post out with a photo of the “Cornell” at work. Now I just need to paint the other side of the engine…and everything else down there…


Inman, Kansas

For millennia, the land now known as Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized, then in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U.S. state. In 1867, McPherson County was founded.

It was founded in 1887 as Aiken. [ citation needed ] It was renamed Inman, in 1889, after Major Henry Inman, [7] who was first the namesake for Lake Inman, located approximately 4 miles (6 km) east of the town. [8]

In 1887, the Chicago, Kansas and Nebraska Railway built a main line from Herington through Inman to Pratt. [9] In 1888, this line was extended to Liberal. Later, it was extended to Tucumcari, New Mexico and El Paso, Texas. It foreclosed in 1891 and taken over by Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, which shut down in 1980 and reorganized as Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas Railroad, merged in 1988 with Missouri Pacific Railroad, merged in 1997 with Union Pacific Railroad. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Rock Island".

Climate Edit

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Inman has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. [12]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900352
1910484 37.5%
1920482 −0.4%
1930533 10.6%
1940507 −4.9%
1950615 21.3%
1960729 18.5%
1970836 14.7%
1980947 13.3%
19901,035 9.3%
20001,142 10.3%
20101,377 20.6%
2019 (est.)1,334 [3] −3.1%
U.S. Decennial Census

2010 census Edit

As of the census [2] of 2010, there were 1,377 people, 513 households, and 347 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,333.9 inhabitants per square mile (901.1/km 2 ). There were 566 housing units at an average density of 959.3 per square mile (370.4/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 96.0% White, 0.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.7% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population.

There were 513 households, of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 32.4% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 19.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.04.

The median age in the city was 45.2 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18 6.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24 19.7% were from 25 to 44 20% were from 45 to 64 and 30.1% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.1% male and 52.9% female.

2000 census Edit

As of the census [4] of 2000, there were 1,142 people, 494 households, and 334 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,106.0 people per square mile (816.5/km 2 ). There were 518 housing units at an average density of 955.2 per square mile (370.4/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 98.42% White, 0.35% Native American, 0.44% from other races, and 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.40% of the population. [13] [14]

There were 494 households, out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 21.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.3% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 29.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was US$31,648, and the median income for a family was $40,804. Males had a median income of $31,875 versus $19,615 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,290. About 2.9% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over.

The community is served by Inman USD 448 public school district. Inman has two schools:

Sports Edit

The Inman Teutons have won the following Kansas State High School championships:


George Inman Diaries, (1786-1789)

Acquisition: The diaries and receipt book were purchased in 1915 by Maria Gozzaldi, on behalf of CHS, from Mrs. Charles R. Hildeburn, the widow of a descendant of George Inman.

Access: There are no restrictions to items in this collection.

Permission to Publish: Requests for permission to publish from the collection should be made to the Executive Director.

Copyright: The Cambridge Historical Society holds the copyright to all items in the collection.


Biographical Sketch:

George Inman was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1755 to Ralph Inman and Susannah (Speakman) Inman. One year later his father purchased two plots of land in what is now Cambridgeport and built a house on the current site of the Cambridge City Hall. The couple had several children who died in infancy and early childhood, but two children other than George survived into adulthood, Susannah and Sarah. His mother, Susannah (Speakman) Inman, died in 1761. In 1771, Ralph Inman remarried Elizabeth (Murray) Smith, sister of James Murray, loyalist, and the widow of James Smith, the wealthy owner of a sugar refinery in Boston.

The family was well connected to the Loyalist families of Cambridge attending Christ Church of which Ralph was the first treasurer. George received the education of wealthy sons of his day, learning French and dance from a Mr. Curtis in 1770, and attending Harvard College, although it is unclear whether he ever graduated. In 1772 he began work at the offices of Herman and Andrew Brimmer in Boston during which time he resided with his uncle John Rowe (of Rowe’s Wharf fame). Little more is known of his early life.

In 1775, during hostilities between Great Britain and British colonies in America, George Inman, against the wishes of his friends and his father, enlisted as a volunteer with the British forces. He was attached to the “Light Company of the 4th or King’s Own Regiment” under the command of his friend Captain Evelyn. He served at the Battle of Bunker Hill under the command of General William Howe.

In January, 1776, he and Captain Evelyn embarked on board the British ship Falcon which was under the command of his brother in law Captain John Linzee (married to his sister Susannah or “Sukey”) and made his way to New York. Inman was involved in several small engagements with the American troops, until the British gathered under General William Howe at Staten Island to prepare for the effort to capture New York City. In August, 1776, shortly before the Battle of Long Island, Inman and a few others captured five American officers. After the capture of New York, which pushed Washington’s troops back to Harlem Heights, General Howe made Inman an ensign. Inman participated in the capture of Fort Washington in November of the same year and was encamped with the troops at Trenton when Washington stealthily crossed the Potomac River on December 24th (26th?) of the same year and engaged the Hessian troops in what in now known as the Battle of Trenton.

On January 3,1777, Inman fought in the Battle of Princeton and retreated with British forces to New Brunswick. He passed his winter with British troops in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. In April, Inman left New Jersey to sail for Virginia with troops under General Howe’s command to take part in what is now known as the Philadelphia Campaign. They landed at the Elk River in Chesapeake Bay on August 25 and engaged with American troops at the Battle of Brandywine on September 11. The troops proceeded to march north, engaging at the Battle of Germantown in early October, and wintering in Philadelphia. While in Philadelphia, Inman “formed an attachment” to Mary Badger, the daughter of Bernard Badger and Susannah (Riché) Badger. He married her on April 23, 1778.

Following his marriage, Inman fought in the Battle of Monmouth. His wife, who had accompanied him, was also present at the battle. In July, Inman was appointed a Lieutenant in the 26th Regiment by General Henry Clinton, but became ill (along with his wife and servants) shortly after his appointment. He remained very ill until well after Christmas of 1778.

On January 26, 1779, Inman’s son Ralph was born. By March, Inman was sufficiently recovered from his illness to rejoin his regiment at Staten Island. He was subsequently removed to Major Andre’s company at Dukers Ferry. On September 20, Inman’s son died, and a few months later, on December 21, Inman and his wife embarked on a ship bound for Great Britain.

After a stormy passage, Inman and his wife arrived in Portsmouth in the middle of February 1779. They journeyed to Bristol where Inman had been ordered to act as a recruiter. During the remainder of 1780, Inman and his wife spent a great deal of time meeting with friends, relatives, and acquaintances, many of whom were displaced Americans.

In January 1781, the Inmans moved to Clifton and on April 4, Inman’s son John Freeman Inman was born. In May, the Inmans journeyed to Burrington to stay with George Inman’s uncle, the Reverend George Inman. They stayed in Burrington until September, then departed for Plymouth. While in Plymouth, they heard the news of Cornwallis’ defeat at Yorktown. They remained in Plymouth until December then returned to Bristol. By 1782, the Inmans had settled comfortably into their life in Bristol. Their daughter Mary Ann Riché was born on May 29, 1782.

In January, 1783, the Inmans moved to a new house on Princess Street and then three weeks later, moved to a home in Rowbarrow. In late August, they journeyed to London and stayed there until February of 1784, when they went to Chester to await passage to Dublin, Ireland. While in Chester, the Inmans made the acquaintance of a Captain and Mrs. Barron, with whom they became good friends .In April, they sailed to Ireland where Inman reported to a regiment in Arklow and then was assigned to a post in Dublin. Inman’s second daughter, Susannah Linzee Inman was born on October 31, 1784. After staying in Ireland for a year and a month, the family returned to England, settling into the same lodgings they had previously occupied in Chester and renewing their friendship with the Barrons. Inman’s third daughter, Hannah Rowe Inman was born on June 23, 1786. In June 1787, they journeyed to London and took up lodging at a house in Putney. During this period in Putney, Inman made several journeys to Whitehall apparently seeking a position or attempting to buy a captaincy. His efforts were fruitless, and, tired of his idle life, he expressed a desire to return to America. While in Putney, the Inmans also discovered that Dr. Coombe of Philadelphia, the husband of Mary Inman’s deceased sister, was living in Brompton with a second wife and two children. The families renewed their acquaintance, and the Inman’s fourth daughter, Sarah Coombe Inman, born on February 3, 1788, was named after the Coombe family

Inman and his family sailed for Grenada (in the West Indies) on April 28,1788 where Inman was to serve in a garrison. During the voyage, the entire family, with the exception of the youngest daughter, Sarah, became very ill. They arrived in George Town, Grenada in June. In August and September, both Inman and his wife remained very ill. Inman was plagued by recurring illness until his death in early 1789. His eldest son, John Freeman Inman died during the same period. Following his death, Inman’s widow, Mary Badger Inman, and his four daughters journeyed back to Cambridge.


Sources:
Gozzaldi, Maria. “Lieutenant George Inman” in Cambridge Historical Society Proceedings, vol. 19, pages 46-79.


Scope and Content Note:

This collection consists of five diaries and one book of receipts. The book of receipts consists of accounts paid by George Inman and his wife for household items, lodging, transportation, and food between 1780 and 1788, after the couple’s arrival in Great Britain in 1780. Most diaries focus on Inman’s daily activities. Inman records the weather, family events, his and his family’s health, church attendance, visits to coffee houses to hear the news, dining at various friends’ and acquaintances’ homes, frequent walks, shooting outings, and attendance at public breakfasts.

Volume I begins with multiple lists of British officers and British Naval officers wounded or killed in battle during the American revolution, those lost in accidents or at sea, volunteers killed or wounded (among them George Inman who was wounded at Long Island), and lists of British ships lost, destroyed, or taken by the enemy, and of American, Dutch, French, or Spanish ships taken by the British. Each list includes the location of the individual’s or ship’s demise. This series of lists is followed by a reminiscent account (written in February of 1782 while staying with his uncle in Burrington Somersetshire, England) of George Inman’s entrance into the American Revolution in December of 1775 and his experiences as a British soldier until his and his new wife’s arrival in England. Following the retrospective account are two pages describing the geography, climate, and political systems of France and Germany, offering commentaries on several regions of France and commentaries on the German political system, highlighting particular rulers or political practices by region. The last four pages of the diary are taken up with recipes. The end sheets of Volume I contain scribbled accounts and sums.

Volume II contains entries dated February 1, 1782 to November 30, 1783. Written while Inman and his family were living in England, Inman focuses on his daily activities, noting frequent walks to the town of Clifton and buying furniture for his new house. Inman records the birth of his daughter, Mary Ann Riché on May 29, 1782. He makes special note of frequent meetings with his friend John Borland of Cambridge, who had been his classmate at Harvard and later became a lieutenant colonel in the British Army. He also writes of frequent visits with the Putnam, Freeman, and Hooper families. Inman records his attendance at a number of public events and performances. On December 12th 1782, he attended a performance of Grecian Daughter (starring Sarah Siddons) in Drury Lane and on July 6, 1783, he attended A Friend in Need is a Friend Indeed at Haymarket Theatre. On December 19, 1782, he writes that he went to the court martial of General James Murray (no immediate relation to Inman’s stepmother). Inman also references apparent financial difficulties. On March 3, 1783, he writes that he was unable to pay a debt and on April 29, 1783, he records an incident in which a bailiff called on him to resolve an apparent misunderstanding about a debt. On October 6, 1783, Inman records that peace has been declared “with great ceremony” with France, Spain, and the United States of America.

Volume III contains entries dated December 1, 1783 to June 30, 1786. The end sheets contain recipes, various accounts and sums, and a list of lottery tickets bought and prizes won. The first page in the volume contains a timeline of battles and events beginning with Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775 and ending with Valley Forge in September, 1777.The last two pages in the volume contain accounts and sums as well as a list of names and addresses in Britain, Ireland, and the United States. Inman records several events relating to his family’s health, including bleedings, and the smallpox inoculations of Freeman and Mary (which took place in April, 1784). In the period between December 1783 and March 1784, he records frequent visits with the Putnam family, Captain and Mrs. Robertson, the Reid family and his friend “Murray,” as well as many others. He also records meeting with his “old friend Armstrong” on January 31, 1784. In the beginning of April 1784, he records his family’s voyage to Ireland and their adjustment to life there. After arriving in Ireland, his entries document his daily military activities as well as his social undertakings. Inman records frequent attendance at court-martial trials as well as social activities with Mr. and Mrs. Campbell, Captain and Mrs. Gordon, and members of the Myers family. On October 31, 1784, he records the birth of his second daughter, Susannah Linzee Inman. On December 13, 1784, he records going to see a dwarf who had been put on exhibition. Upon his family’s return to Chester in May 1785, Inman records frequent socializing with Captain and Mrs. Barron, the Courtland family, and the Skinner family. He also records the birth of his daughter, Hannah Rowe Inman on June 23, 1786. Inman’s entry of June 17, 1785 is a reminiscence of the Battle of Bunker Hill on its tenth anniversary. His entry of June 20th is a similar reminiscence of the Battle of Monmouth. On April 19, 1786, he notes the eleventh anniversary of the shots fired at Lexington and writes a reminiscence.

Volume IV contains entries dated July 1, 1786 to December 31, 1787. The end sheets contain various accounts and sums as well as a record of correspondence written from July to August. The last ten pages of the journal contain notes of debts owed, recipes for cough medicine, a transcription of a verse Inman found scratched on a shutter in Whitehall, and a packing list for seven trunks and two boxes. The last page of the journal is a table of regiments by year that notes destinations of particular regiments, the regiments they were to relieve, and which regiments returned home. Until August 1786, Inman records social engagements with the Courtlands and the Skinners (both families left for Nova Scotia in August). He also writes of frequent social activities with a Mr. Namera, the Wrenches, and the Colliers. On May 9, 1787, he writes that the bailiff has been looking for him – seemingly because of his debt – and during July, 1787, he records trips to Whitehall to call on various individuals in an apparent attempt to find a position.

Volume V contains entries dated January 1, 1788 to January 31, 1789. The back end sheet contains scribbled sums and accounts and a recipe for cough medicine. Inman records spending most of his time in his house, although he does note some visits to Whitehall. On April 28, 1788, he records leaving for Granada in the West Indies with his family. During the voyage, he documents the weather as it pertains to sailing conditions, winds, and his family’s illnesss. Once in Granada, Inman notes frequent rides up Richmond and Hospital Hills, feeding the military mules, and social interactions with a “Duval,” Captain Mackeral, and the Miller family. During the months of August and September, he records the serious illness of his wife and himself. On October 2nd, he writes that Captain Mackeral has told him of his father’s death and on October 21, he records that he has entered into official mourning. Inman’s diary ends a short time before his death, and its last entries note that he is ill, although he records improvement.


Henry Lafont (1920-2011)

Henry Lafont (1920-2011) s'est illustré lors de la célèbre bataille d'Angleterre (Battle of Britain), de juillet 1940 à mai 1941. Après une carrière militaire à l'OTAN (Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord) et pendant la guerre d'Algérie, il a dirigé le Salon International de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace (SIAE) du Bourget pendant dix-huit ans. Article republié en hommage à ceux ayant combattu l'ennemi nazi que des dirigeants politiques tel Churchill, évoqué dans Les Heures sombres (Darkest Hours) Jonathan Teplitzky avec Brian Cox, Miranda Richardson et John Slattery, n'hésitaient pas à nommer et à combattre efficacement.

Pierre Clostermann (1921-2006) Romain Gary, des « Racines du ciel » à « La Vie devant soi » Max Guedj (1913-1945), héros méconnu de la France libre

Henry Lafont (1920-2011)

Jacques Remlinger (1923-2002)

Groupe de chasse Alsace 1941-2001

« Ceux de Normandie-Niémen » d’Yves Donjon

Henry Lafont prépare alors son entrée aux Arts et Métiers, mais surtout le concours de l’école de l’Air d’Istres qui forme les sous-officiers du personnel navigant. Il passe donc des épreuves, dont une « de culture générale de niveau du brevet élémentaire ».

Admis, il y entre le 4 novembre 1938, avec « 60 à 80 heures de vol ». Elève pilote dans l’armée de l’Air, son ambition est alors de devenir un pilote de ligne.

Un but qu’il pense atteindre par l’expérience militaire. Ce très jeune homme de 18 ans déteste alors « l’Allemand. Entre 1918 et 1940, il s’est passé 22 ans. Ce n’est pas grand chose ». Il a toujours entendu parler « de la guerre de 14 et, avec l’arrivée des Nazis, de cette guerre contre les Allemands qui devait se dérouler en France et dont on ne voyait pas comment on pourrait se tirer ». Lucide, dès 1935, il pressent comme une « évidence » un conflit inéluctable, « sans le souhaiter », car il n’est « pas un grand guerrier ». 1938, c’est une année de grand recrutement, car on commence à craindre la guerre. Henry Lafont est envoyé en école civile de pilotage à Aulnat, l’aérodrome de Clermont-Ferrand. Là, il suit un enseignement scandé par des plages spécialisées. Le matin est en général consacré à la culture physique, à l’instruction militaire et aux cours théoriques. L’après-midi : entraînement en vol avec un moniteur, M. Foucaud, « un homme formidable » qu’il retrouvera en Angleterre et qui, volontaire de l’escadrille Normandie-Niémen, y trouvera la mort. De sa promotion, peu passeront en Angleterre pour poursuivre le combat.

En école militaire, il vole sur Morane-Saulnier 194, Morane 130, Potez 25 « un avion ancien plus gros », et sur Caudron Simoun, un monomoteur « moderne, avec des instruments de navigation. On commençait à se prendre au sérieux », commente-t-il avec ironie.

« Jamais dans l’histoire des conflits de l’humanité, tant d’hommes ont dû autant à si peu d’entre eux » déclare le Premier ministre Churchill devant la Chambre des Communes le 20 août 1940. Cet hommage vise la RAF et surtout ses valeureux chasseurs surnommés « die Lords » par les aviateurs allemands. L’espérance moyenne de vie d’un pilote est alors de 87 heures de vol. La Luftwaffe s’appuie sur ses « 1 000 bombardiers (Heinkel 111 et Junkers 88) et ses 800 chasseurs opérationnels (Messerschmitt 109), en plus de ses 300 bombardiers en piqué (Junkers 87 surnommés Stukas) et 250 chasseurs-bombardiers (Messerschmitt 110) ». Le Fighter Command lui oppose ses 700 chasseurs - « 40 squadrons de première ligne et 12 squadrons de réserve » se souvient l’Air Vice-Marshal sir Keith Park, qui commandait « 25 de ces » groupes - un squadron comprend 16 avions, dont 12 en vol, et 25 pilotes - pour défendre la zone vitale et vulnérable du Sud-Est qui englobe Londres. Après avoir intrigué, ils sont envoyés à Old Sarum, près de Salisbury, où ils volent sur « Tiger Moth, pour s’habituer au vol en Angleterre », puis sur le « Hawker Hector, un biplace de reconnaissance ». Ils parviennent à partir le 19 août en OTU (Operational Training Unit), une école de chasse où ils suivent « l’enseignement intensif aérien final avant l’envoi en opérations ». Là, à Sutton Bridge, Henry Lafont effectue 40 heures de vol en onze jours, alors qu’à Oran il avait volé 35 heures en six mois. Il pilote d’abord un Harvard (T.6), puis vole le 25 août sur Hurricane, « plus gros, plus puissant et un peu plus rapide que le Morane 406 et avec un poste de pilotage plus vaste ». Bilingue ? « On se débrouillait. ». Henry Lafont s’habite « vite aux nouveaux indicateurs de mesure - vitesse en miles par heure (mph) », mais vitesse ascensionnelle en pieds par minute, « altitude en pieds, essence en gallons - et aux manettes des gaz : en Angleterre, on pousse en avant pour décoller alors qu’en France, on tire, « on met la manette dans la poche » ». Ce Lotois est étonné de voler dans des conditions météorologiques difficiles. Et il se perfectionne dans la navigation aux instruments. De juin à décembre 1941, ce pilote, considéré comme « un chic type » par ses camarades, est sélectionné comme moniteur dans l’école de chasse de Crosby-on-Eden à Carlisle (Northumberland) où il participe à la formation de deux promotions de pilotes français - plus de soixante dont Fournier et Boisot -, d’abord en double commande sur Miles Masters, puis sur Hurricane. Il enseigne la technique de chasse, le tir au sol, etc. Ces « six mois de repos » le rendent furieux car il « considère qu’il n’est pas venu en Angleterre comme instructeur » et il veut « repartir en opérations ». Il se bat comme un beau diable et fin 1941 il est muté pour le Moyen-Orient, « peut-être par envie de soleil ». C’est le jour de la Noël 1941 qu’il quitte Crosby pour Liverpool. « Le commandement opérationnel, c’est la RAF. Et l’appartenance aux FAFL n’empêche pas de servir dans une escadrille anglaise ou russe.

Du 18 Juin 1940 au 31 juillet 1943, c’est la première ère des FAFL, celle de la France Libre » explique cet apprenti historien. Parmi ses camarades, il distingue Max Guedj, « le plus grand des combattants des FAFL, un homme bien, impressionnant par son calme, sa réserve et d’un courage. », comme en attestent ses missions particulièrement périlleuses et ses décorations exceptionnelles. Wing commander affecté fin 1944 à des missions d’attaques de minéraliers qui sont âprement défendus par des « navires DCA » et de redoutables chasseurs, cet aîné de sept ans lui « en impose ».

Les pilotes allemands ? Ils sont « très bons, surtout ceux chevronnés de 1940 » : Galland, Mölders, etc. « Ensuite, ça a été un peu comme nous. Au lieu d’arriver en escadrilles avec 500 ou 600 heures de vol, comme au début de la guerre, ils arrivaient avec 120-150 h, sans la même expérience ». Ce chasseur loue leur « adresse et leur matériel. Le Spitfire était peut-être supérieur au Me 109 parce qu’il virait plus serré. Mais le 109 était nettement supérieur au Hurricane dont seule la manoeuvrabilité permettait de nous en tirer. Ensuite, le FW 190 était un avion de 1ère classe. Quant au Me 262, il a surpris nombre de pilotes de la RAF car c’était le premier avion à réaction, il allait au moins 200 km plus vite que le meilleur des Spit ».

Premier salon aéronautique au monde, le plus ancien aussi - créé en 1909 -, le salon du Bourget alterne tous les deux ans avec son homologue britannique de Farnborough. Très long à monter, il nécessite un budget de plusieurs centaines de millions de francs, financé par les exposants, les visiteurs, les constructeurs, etc. Henry Lafont rend les règles de sécurité plus sévères : plans de présentation un mois à l’avance, échelle de sanctions, commission de sécurité composée notamment d’un contrôleur des Armées directeur de l’équipe de sécurité, d’un directeur des vols et d’un ancien pilote d’essais du Centre des Essais en Vol de Brétigny, etc. Comme pour d’autres salons, l’Etat contribue par ses agents : pompiers, policiers, etc. Malheureusement, des accidents, très rares, surgissent.

Henry Lafont accentue le caractère international - courriers en anglais et documents bilingues - et commercial du SIAE : accueil des industriels étrangers, quelle que soit leur taille. Pour ses besoins professionnels, il voyage régulièrement aux Etats-Unis, au Japon, en Indonésie, etc. Et ce directeur côtoie Ziegler, de la SNECMA, Jacques Maillet, président d’Intertechnique, compagnon de la Libération, « un homme précis, certainement celui qui » l’a « le plus impressionné » et Marcel Dassault qui incarne « toute une période ».

A sa retraite, en 1985, ce vice-président de l’Amicale des FAFL participe à sa Gazette et écrit des articles pour Icare. Quant à la dissolution de cette Amicale, selon Henry Lafont, elle n’est pas prévue pour l’an 2000.

Habité par un devoir de mémoire, Henry Lafont vient de consacrer près de sept ans à la rédaction du Mémorial des pilotes morts et disparus des FAFL. Précis et illustré si possible de la photographie de chacun des 500 aviateurs cités, il offrira fin 2000 une notice biographique concise sur ces héros. Pour ce travail, Henry Lafont a effectué un véritable travail d’historien. C’est avec un souci méticuleux de la véracité qu’il a consulté les archives, notamment celles de la RAF, confronté les sources, relevé les erreurs ou les incohérences et rétabli parfois la vérité. On comprend dès lors que cette oeuvre exceptionnelle, destinée à l’origine à l’Amicale des FAFL, intéresse aussi le SHAA.

© Photos tirées des collections de Henry Lafont et Sarah Dars-Guedj

1 commentaire:

Mes félicitations madame pour cet excellent article
Je savais par avance qu'en France sa disparition passerait quasi-inaperçue: merci d'avoir rappellé la mémoire de ce héro modeste que les britanniques, eux, n'ont pas oublié de commémorer On peut ainsi comprendre pourquoi Henry Lafon privilégiait de fait les cérémonies d'outre manche dédiées au souvenir ce que Churchill appellait avec respect "the few".

Selon "the telegraph" du 12/12/2011 :

LB (né 25 ans après ce conflit)


Today's neighborhood of Inman Park includes areas that were originally designated

  • Inman Park proper (today the Inman Park Historic District)
  • Moreland Park (today the Inman Park-Moreland Historic District)
  • part of Copenhill Park (properties on Atlantis, the south side of Highland, and the north sides of Sinclair and a block of Austin)
  • former industrial areas on the western side, now mixed-use developments including Inman Park Village and North Highland Steel

The area was part of the battlefield in the Battle of Atlanta in 1864.

Atlanta's first streetcar suburb Edit

Inman Park (proper) was planned in the late 1880s by Joel Hurt, a civil engineer and real-estate developer who intended to create a rural oasis connected to the city by the first of Atlanta's electric streetcar lines, along Edgewood Avenue. The East Atlanta Land Company acquired and developed more than 130 acres east of the city and Hurt named the new suburb for his friend and business associate, Samuel M. Inman. Joseph Forsyth Johnson was hired as landscape designer for Inman Park who included curvilinear street designs and liberal usage of open spaces in his planning. [3] [4] [5]

The Atlanta Constitution in 1896 grandly described Inman Park:

High up above the city, where the purest breezes and the brightest sunshine drove away the germs of disease, and where nature had lavished her best gifts, the gentlemen who conceived the thought of Inman Park found the locality above all others which they desired. It was to be a place of homes, of pretty homes, green lawns, and desirable inhabitants. And all save those who would make desirable residents have been excluded. . It's the prettiest, highest, healthiest and most desirable locality I ever saw. Everybody is friendly and neighborly. . And as far as accessibility it ranks second to no residence portion of the city. We have three car lines and frequent schedules. [6]

Like new developments throughout the United States at the time, but in stark contrast to the attitudes prevalent in the neighborhood today, Inman Park was conceived of and promoted as a segregated community.

Moreland Park was by contrast developed as a more traditional, incremental building of sub-divisions as opposed to the grand plan for Inman Park proper.

Decline Edit

The arrival of the automobile allowed upper class Atlantans to live in suburbs farther north from downtown workplaces, such as Morningside and what is now considered Buckhead. Inman Park became less fashionable and the exuberant Victorian architecture came to seem dated. The mansions came to be subdivided into apartments.

Similar to other intown neighborhoods such as Virginia Highland, Inman Park fell to blight during the white middle and upper class exodus to the northern suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s, and was:

an economically depressed neighborhood of mostly blue-collar white folks, elderly couples who could not afford to move out and families on disability and welfare. They lived in rented bungalows or big houses chopped up into tiny roach-infested apartments. [7]

Atlanta's first intown neighborhood to gentrify Edit

Driving through the neighborhood on his way to appraise stained glass windows in the doomed home of Judge Durwood T. Pye on Poplar Circle, Robert Griggs was smitten by the extraordinary architecture of the Beath-Dickey House, then a dilapidated multi-unit rental property. He and his partner, Robert Aiken, bought the house [ when? ] and restored it to a single-family dwelling. They were followed by others who restored homes founded [ when? ] Inman Park Restoration, the neighborhood association and created [ when? ] a neighborhood newsletter, a garden club to rehabilitate public spaces, and a pre-school. [8] To publicize the progress they were making, they began [ when? ] a Tour of Homes with a small festival, which has grown into the hugely popular Inman Park Festival, held each spring.

Freeway revolt against I-485 Edit

During this same period, there was an intense fight against the I-485 freeway which was to be built through the neighborhood, although many properties in Inman Park, as well as the entire neighboring neighborhood of Copenhill, were torn down in preparation for freeway construction.

Inman Park today Edit

After decades of restoration and renewal, Inman Park is now regarded as a highly desirable intown neighborhood with a mixture of rental and owner-occupied houses and condominiums. Built up as it was over decades, the neighborhood housing now ranges from tiny mill town shotguns to the Victorian mansions of the original development, intermixed with bungalows of all sizes built during the first three decades of the 20th century. Like its housing, the makeup of Inman Park has changed since its inception, with a population that is 25% non-white and of varying economic levels—although increasing housing prices are beginning to force more economic homogeneity. [9] Since the beginning of its renewal, inclusivity and a strong sense of community have distinguished Inman Park. The neighborhood association has always welcomed renters and homeowners alike, with nominal annual dues, while the Inman Park Festival, which attracts tens of thousands of visitors every spring, brings residents together to produce the largest all-volunteer festival in Georgia. The Festival's centerpiece is the Tour of Homes, which showcases the wide variety of sizes and types of residences in the neighborhood.

Former industrial areas on the west side of the neighborhood have been redeveloped into mixed-use complexes. The former General Pipe and Foundry site is now North Highland Steel and the Mead paper plant site is now Inman Park Village. In the early 1990s the former Atlanta Stove Works was transformed by swapping out two letters of its name and became the Atlanta Stage Works, a film and media production center that eventually housed the early Tyler Perry film studios and the National AIDS Quilt. In 2015 it was converted into a mixed-use office and restaurant space, to be added to the space across Krog Street to form the Krog Street Market.

Inman Park is bordered by: [10]

  • the BeltLineEastside Trail on the west, across which lies the Old Fourth Ward on the north, across which lies Poncey-Highland on the east, across which lies Candler Park
  • DeKalb Avenue on the south, across which lie Cabbagetown and Reynoldstown

Little Five Points district is located where Inman Park and Candler Park meet at Moreland Avenue and Euclid/McClendon. [10]


The History of the Inman Terminal

After 70 years of being in business, we find that we have a lot of great stories and accomplishments to look back on. One of those stories is the first of many terminal acquisitions in 1984, under the leadership of former CEO and current Chairman of the Board, Bill Kirk.

The Inman terminal was purchased from Ashmore Brothers, a former South Carolina asphalt paving contractor. This new terminal was appropriately named Inman Asphalt, and was eventually renamed as Associated Asphalt Inman.

In 1984, there were very few rail-supplied asphalt terminals in the eastern United States. In fact, our terminal on Roanoke Avenue in Roanoke, VA was one of only five liquid asphalt rail terminals operating from Virginia through Florida. Knowing this, it was natural for the Ashmore Brothers to reach out to us when they decided to sell their asphalt terminal.

On the day of closing, Bill Kirk and his father, J.W. Kirk, continued through lengthy negotiations on the terms of purchase. After closing the deal, the Inman terminal was in full operation to sell asphalt within a week. The first rail cars arrived from the Amoco refinery in Savannah, GA, which later became the IMTT terminal in which we operate. To bring everything full circle, the Ashmore Brothers were the first customers to receive supply from the Inman terminal.

To further showcase the smooth transition, the terminal Manager, Warren Hughes, along with four other terminal operators stayed at the terminal to become employees. Hughes went on to become Vice President, overseeing operations in South Carolina. He was instrumental in the growth of the Inman terminal and assisted in the purchase of the Salisbury terminal. During Hughes’ 22 years at Associated Asphalt, he became one of the faces of the company alongside Bill Kirk, visiting customers and suppliers across the country. While Hughes is no longer with us, his stories and impact on the organization live on.

The Inman terminal has changed over the years. Today, only one of the original nine tanks still stand. In addition, the original office, a used mobile home, was eventually replaced by the existing office building.

Today’s Inman terminal employs 11 hard-working individuals, has a capacity of over 50,000 tons, and has three rail sidings able to accommodate up to 28 cars.


The Pardo Stone: The Early History of Inman, South Carolina

THE EARLY HISTORY OF INMAN, SOUTH CAROLINA is a local history gathered and written by Jimmie Lou Bishop Brown. She worked tirelessly to preserve memories which otherwise would have been lost forever. Copyrighted in 1983, the book is no longer in print. THE EARLY HISTORY OF INMAN, SOUTH CAROLINA by Jimmie Lou Bishop Brown. Chapter 1, Before Inman was a Town, Spanish Explorers, page 2.

The W. P. A. History of Spartanburg County suggests that the first white man to set foot on Spartanburg County soil was probably the Spanish leader Pardo, who in 1567, led an expedition from the vicinity of Parris Island to the mountains. In the summer of 1934, a farmer near Inman (Bryson Hammett who lived on the Inman-Lyman Road) plowed up with a tractor a stone bearing every evidence of great age and having marks clearly made by human hands.

D. Wallace of Wofford College in his SHORT HISTORY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, wrote, “In June 1934 a bogged, skidding tractor drawing a binder, exposed in wet ground on the farm of Mr. W. Bryson Hammett twelve miles northwest of Spartanburg, South Carolina a stone 17 ½ inches long, 12 inches broad, and 4 or 5 inches thick. When throwing the aside the stone some days later, Mr. Hammett noticed carvings of a parallelogram, an arrow, a rising (or setting) sun, two parallel lines, the figures 15 (?7) and several scratches, perhaps by plows – an east-west Indian trail ran near here, and Pardo’s journal records that he passed in 1567 through the region.

Professor Lewis Jones of Wofford College includes in his SYNOPTIC HISTORY a picture of the Pardo Stone with the following caption: “The Pardo Stone, considered to be the oldest European artifact in the state, indicates that Juan Pardo and his party of 150 men reached the Inman area by 1567.”


Contents

1850–66 Edit

The Inman Line had its roots in a line of sailing packets owned by John Grubb Richardson and his brothers along with their young business partner, William Inman (1825–81). In 1850, Inman persuaded his partners to form the Liverpool and Philadelphia Steamship Company and buy an advanced new ship, City of Glasgow. [2] She proved profitable because her iron hull required less repair, and her screw propulsion system left more room for passengers and freight. City of Glasgow ' s moderate speed considerably reduced coal consumption. [1] The ship's first voyage for her new owners departed for Philadelphia on 17 December 1850. [3] The next year, she was joined by a larger edition, City of Manchester. [1]

In 1852, the Inman broke new ground by transporting steerage passengers under steam. As Irish Quakers, the Richardsons were concerned about the poor conditions experienced by U.S.-bound emigrants, who traveled by sailing ship with unpredictable passage times. [4] Steerage passengers were required to bring their own food, and often ran short. In 1836, Diamond lost 17 of her 180 steerage passengers to starvation when the ship required 100 days to make the crossing. From the beginning, Inman provided better steerage quarters and adopted the recommendation of a Parliamentary Committee to provide cooked meals to emigrants. As a result, Inman was able to charge steerage rates of 8 guineas, while the fastest sailing packets charged 4 to 6 guineas. During the period, Inman liners typically carried 500 passengers, 80 percent in steerage. [1]

Disaster struck the new firm in 1854 when the company lost both City of Glasgow with all hands and the brand new City of Philadelphia, albeit with no loss of life. [2] The remaining liner, the City of Manchester, was chartered to the French government for the Crimean War, along with three more liners that were completed or bought in 1855. The Richardsons withdrew from the firm because of its involvement with the war, and William Inman assumed full control. [1]

At the end of the war, Inman resumed service to Philadelphia. However, New York was now the primary gateway to the west, and Inman decided to alternate between the two ports. The firm's name was changed to the Liverpool, Philadelphia and New York Steam Ship Company, but all ships were routed to New York after its SS Kangaroo was trapped by ice in the Delaware River. [1] Until 1857, the firm ran a fortnightly service from Liverpool. That same year Collins Line collapsed, and Inman succeeded it as the mail contractor for the United States Post Office. In 1859, a call at Queenstown was added to pick up Irish emigrants. The next year Inman ran a weekly service, increasing in 1863 to three sailings every fortnight, and twice a week during summer in 1866. [2]

1866–87 Edit

With the celebrated City of Paris of 1866, the company ordered five express liners that matched the speed of Cunard's best. [1] In 1867, responsibility for mail contracts was transferred from the Admiralty to the Post Office and opened for bid. Inman was awarded one of the three weekly New York mail services and the fortnightly route to Halifax, Nova Scotia formerly held by Cunard. [5] While Cunard continued to receive a subsidy, Inman was paid sea postage. [5] Two years later Inman's New York contract was extended for seven years at an annual subsidy of £35,000, half that of Cunard's subsidy of £70,000 for two weekly New York mail sailings. [5] In 1870, Inman landed 44,100 passengers in New York, almost twice Cunard's 24,500, although Cunard still carried substantially more first-class passengers. [2] Throughout the 1870s, Inman's passage times were shorter than Cunard's. [1] City of Brussels of 1869 beat Scotia ' s eastbound record and in 1875 City of Berlin won the Blue Riband by taking the westbound record. [6]

In 1871 both companies faced a new rival when White Star Line joined the Atlantic ferry with the revolutionary RMS Oceanic and her sisters. The new White Star record breakers were especially economical because of their use of compound engines. Oceanic consumed only 58 tons of coal per day, compared with 110 tons for City of Brussels. White Star also set new standards for comfort by placing the dining saloon midships and doubling the size of cabins. Inman reacted quickly, bringing its express liners back to the shipyards for compound engines and other changes to match the new White Star liners, while Cunard lagged behind. [1]

The Panic of 1873 started a five-year shipping depression that strained the finances of Inman and its rivals. To raise more capital, the partnership was restructured in 1875 as a stock company and renamed the Inman Steamship Company, Limited. The next year, Inman and White Star agreed to coordinate their sailings to reduce competition. When the 1869 mail contracts expired, the UK Post Office ended both Cunard and Inman's subsidies and paid on the basis of weight, but at a rate substantially higher than paid by the US Post Office. [5] Cunard's weekly New York mail sailings were reduced to one and White Star was awarded the third mail sailing. Every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, a liner from one of the three firms departed Liverpool with the mail for New York. [7] Inman reduced its fleet so that only the express liners remained. [1]

Profits still dropped in as new competitors sought the Blue Riband such as the National Line and the Guion Line, and numerous steamship concerns from mainland Europe competed for the emigrant trade. [4] To restore its fortunes, Inman ordered City of Rome, which was designed as the largest and fastest liner yet. Unfortunately the ship failed to meet her design specifications and was rejected in 1882 after only six voyages. [2]

William Inman died before the ship's maiden voyage and the company suffered without his leadership. In 1883, City of Brussels was lost in the Mersey after colliding with another steamship. Meanwhile, Cunard renewed its mail fleet with four exceptional steel-hulled liners. Needing capital to match its rivals, Inman directors agreed to voluntary liquidation so that the largest creditor, the Philadelphia-based International Navigation Company could buy Inman's assets. [1]

Fate Edit

The line was reorganized as the Inman and International Steamship Company, and its new owners provided the capital to build two outstanding record breakers, the twin-screw City of New York and City of Paris. However, the UK government responded to the ownership change by revoking Inman's mail contract. After considerable lobbying, the US Congress agreed to replace the contract and allow Inman to register its two new record breakers in the US if International Navigation built two similar express liners in US yards. [2] Therefore, on 22 February 1893 the US flag was broken out over the two newest Inman vessels and the company merged into the American Line. [1]

The Inman fleet—all of which built for Inman unless otherwise indicated—consisted of the following ships, presented in order of acquisition. List sourced from [1]

Ship Built In service for Inman Type Tonnage Notes
City of Glasgow 1850 1850–54 iron, screw 1,600 GRT missing 1854, no survivors
City of Manchester 1851 1851–71 iron, screw 1,900 GRT sold and converted to sail 1871
City of Philadelphia 1854 1854–54 iron, screw 2,100 GRT wrecked, no loss of life
City of Baltimore 1855 1855–74 iron, screw 2,400 GRT sold
City of Washington 1855 1855–73 iron-screw 2,400 GRT wrecked 1873
Kangaroo 1854 1855–69 iron, screw 1,850 GRT built for other owners, sold 1869
Virgo 1856 1858–61 iron, screw 1,600 GRT built for other owners, sold to US Government 1861
Glasgow 1851 1859–65 iron, screw 1,950 GRT built for other owners, lost 1865
Edinburgh 1855 1859–68 iron, screw 2,200 GRT built for other owners, sold 1868
Etna 1856 1860–75 iron, screw 2,200 GRT built for Cunard, sold 1875
City of New York 1861 1861–64 iron, screw 2,550 GRT wrecked 1864
City of London 1863 1863–78 iron, screw 2,550 GRT sold 1878 to Thistle Line. Lost at sea, 1881.
City of Cork 1863 1863–71 iron, screw 1,550 GRT sold 1871
City of Limerick 1863 1863–79 iron, screw 1,550 GRT built for other owners, sold 1879
City of Dublin 1864 1864–73 iron, screw 2,000 GRT sold 1874 to Dominion Line
City of Boston 1865 1865–70 iron, screw 2,200 GRT missing 1870, no survivors
City of New York 1865 1865–81 iron, screw 2,650 GRT sold 1881
City of Paris 1866 1866–84 iron, screw 2,650 GRT sold 1884
City of Antwerp 1867 1867–79 iron, screw 2,400 GRT sold 1879
City of Brooklyn 1869 1867–78 iron, screw 2,950 GRT sold 1878 to Dominion Line
City of Brussels 1869 1869–83 iron, screw 3,100 GRT Eastbound record holder, sunk 1883, 10 lost
City of Montreal 1872 1872–87 iron, screw 4,450 GRT burned at sea 1887, no loss of life
City of Chester 1873 1873–93 iron, screw 4,800 GRT express liner, joined American Line 1893
City of Richmond 1873 1873–91 iron, screw 4,800 GRT express liner, sold 1891
City of Berlin 1875 1875–93 iron, screw 5,500 GRT Blue Riband winner, joined American Line 1893
City of Rome 1881 1881–81 iron, screw 8,413 GRT returned to builder after 6 voyages, transferred to Anchor Line
City of Chicago 1883 1883–92 steel, screw 5,150 GRT built for other owners, wrecked 1892, no loss of life
Baltic 1871 1885–86 iron, screw 3,850 GRT chartered from White Star
City of New York 1888 1888–93 steel, twin screw 10,650 GRT Blue Riband winner, joined American Line 1893
City of Paris 1889 1889–93 steel, twin screw 10,650 GRT Blue Riband winner, joined American Line 1893

In 1873, Alfred E. Warren wrote a theme for the line, called the Inman Line March. Unusually, it was written in 6/8 despite being a march.