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John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910 - 1997)

John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910 - 1997)


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John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910 - 1997)

John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910 - 1997) was born on 5 November 1910 in Perth, Western Australia, the son of Sir John Winthrop Hackett Senior, an Australian judge and owner of two newspapers. His father's family was originally from Tipperary. He went to Geelong Grammar School (where Prince Charles briefly went) and then to New College, Oxford which later made him an honorary fellow, reading both greats and modern history under Richard Crossman. He had hoped to become a don but his degree wasn't quite good enough and so joined his great grandfather's old regiment, the 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars in 1931. He served in Palestine (where he was mentioned in despatches in 1936) and then joined the Trans-Jordan Frontier Force from 1937 - 41 and was mentioned in despatches twice. He then served in Syria (where he was wounded and received the MC), meeting his Austrian wife Margaret on the shores of the Sea of Galilee and marrying her in St George's Cathedral in Jerusalem. The Western Desert followed, where he was wounded again, receiving the DSO, and while recuperating at GHQ helped in the formation of the Long Range Desert Group, SAS and Popski's Private Army. Next, he was selected to raise the 4th Parachute Brigade and commanded it in Italy where he was wounded again. This was followed by Operation Market Garden, where he was seriously wounded and taken prisoner during the Battle for Arnhem but escaped and was taken in by a courageous Dutch family and then ferried to freedom by the Dutch resistance. He received a bar for his DSO for his exploits at Arnhem.

He returned to Palestine in 1947 to command the TJFF where he had the delicate task of disbanding the force in order to pave the way for British withdrawal, a task he handled with great skill. He then spent his leave in Austria, attending a semester in postgraduate medieval studies at Graz University. After attending the Imperial Defence College in 1951, he commanded the 20th Armoured Brigade in 1954 before being promoted to Major General and command of the 7th Armoured Division. He was a fluent German speaker and was active in promoting Anglo-German relations and the study of Germany by those serving in BAOR. He left Germany in 1958 to become Commandant of the Royal Military College of Science in Shrivenham and was promoted to Lieutenant General in 1961 as well as becoming GOC, Northern Ireland. He also delivered the Lees Knowles lectures at Cambridge, generally acclaimed for their academic standing and was very well received. In 1963, he moved to the MoD as Deputy Chief of the General Staff responsible for forces organisation and weapon development. He was formidable in committee and knew exactly what his role entailed, fencing with people at all levels of Government if the cause warranted it. He suffered a great deal of unpopularity as the leading figure in the reorganisation of the Territorial Army. It was a controversial decision therefore to promote him to general and give him command of BAOR and the parallel command of NATO's Northern Army Group, but his ability to speak several languages made him an international figure, as did his friendship with foreign soldiers such as General Kielmansegg of the Bundeswehr. In 1968 he wrote a highly controversial letter to The Times, critical of the British Government's apparent lack of concern over the strength of NATO forces in Europe but signed the letter wearing his NATO hat rather than his British one. The furore it caused appealed to his particular sense of humour.

By that point he had realised that the very top job, Chief of the Defence Staff would be denied him – he was too clever for politicians and perhaps the Army as well, also being a little abrasive at times, having a lack of subtlety when compared to others who have filled the role. Retiring from the Army in 1968 led him to become the Principle of King's College, London and he made the transition from soldier to academic very easily. He participated in the student marches in 1973 over the erosion of student grants, a move that earned him some criticism from senior academics but showed he still had the courage of his convictions when he had to stand up for something he believed was right. He was equally at ease with undergraduates as he was with subalterns. After his retirement from King's (to which he returned in 1977 as a Visiting Professor in Classics) he devoted himself to writing and lecturing, being always in demand as an after dinner speaker as he was clear and forthright but not pompous. He became known on a much wider basis through his appearances on radio and television. In 1977 he wrote 'I Was A Stranger' recalling his exploits at Arnhem while in 1978 he co-authored 'The Third World War', a novel about a possible global conflict in 1985 and in 1982 followed with a companion volume, 'The Third World War: The Untold Story' which predicted the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the strategic importance of oil in the Middle East. The following year he wrote a book on the British Army entitled 'A Profession of Arms' (which was produced as a television programme) and edited 'Warfare in the Ancient World' in 1989. He died on 9 September 1997.

Awards: MBE (1938), MC (1941), DSO (1942) and Bar (1945), CBE (1953), CB (1958), KCB (1962), GCB (1967).

Arthur, Max. 'Obituary – General Sir John Hackett' located as of 15 July 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19970911/ai_n14132264, was originally in The Independent, 11 September 1997, p. 12.

http://www.nntk.net/arnhem_1944/hackett_times_obit.html - an obituary of General Sir John Hackett (as of 15 July 2007), originally in The Times, 10 September 1997, p. 21.

Barker, Dennis. 'Obituary – General Sir John Hackett' located as of 15 July 2007 at http://www.nntk.net/arnhem_1944/hackett_guardian_obit.html, originally in The Guardian, 10 September 1997, p. 15.

Pictures courtesy of http://www.nntk.net.


John Winthrop Hackett Junior

Jenderal Sir John Winthrop Hackett GCB, CBE, DSO & Bar, MC (lahir 5 November 1910 – meninggal 9 September 1997 pada umur 86 tahun) adalah seorang tentara Inggris kelahiran Australia, penulis dan administrator universitas.

(Catatan: tanggal penulisan mungkin tidak dapat dipercaya dan hanya untuk panduan)

  • Popski's Private Army, 1950, ISBN 0-304-36143-7 (Hanya kata pengantar)
  • The Profession Of Arms, 1963, ISBN 0-02-547120-1
  • I Was A Stranger, 1978, ISBN 0-395-27087-1
  • The Third World War, 1978, ISBN 0-425-04477-7
  • Third World War: Lecture, 1979 ISBN 0-85287-132-5
  • Arnhem Doctor, 1981, ISBN 0-85613-324-8 (Hanya kata pengantar)
  • The Third World War: The Untold Story, 1982, ISBN 0-283-98863-0
  • The Middle East Commandos, 1988, ISBN 0-7183-0645-7 (Hanya kata pengantar)
  • Warfare In the Ancient World, 1989, ISBN 0-283-99591-2
  • The Desert Rats: History of the 7th Armoured Division, 1990, ISBN 1-85367-063-4 (Hanya pengantar)
  • The Devil's Birthday: Bridges to Arnhem, 1944, 1992, ISBN 0-85052-352-4
  • The History of the Glider Pilot Regiment: An Official History, 1992, ISBN 0-85052-326-5
  • One Night In June, 1994, 1853104922 (Hanya pengantar)
  • Map of the D-Day Landings, 1994, ISBN 0-7028-2668-5 (Hanya kata pengantar)
  • To Save A Life, 1995, ISBN 1-898094-10-1

Artikel bertopik biografi Inggris ini adalah sebuah rintisan. Anda dapat membantu Wikipedia dengan mengembangkannya.


Post-war career

He returned to Palestine in 1947 where he assumed command of the Trans-Jordan Frontier Force. Under his direction the force was disbanded as part of the British withdrawal from the region. [ 1 ] He attended university at Graz as a postgraduate in Post Mediæval Studies. [ 1 ] After attending Staff College in 1951 he was appointed to command the 20th Armoured Brigade and, on being promoted to Major General, assumed command of the 7th Armoured Division. [ 1 ] In 1958 he became Commandant of the Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham, and was promoted to Lieutenant General in 1961. [ 1 ] He became General Officer Commanding-in-Chief, Northern Ireland Command in 1961. [ 4 ] In 1963, he was appointed to Ministry of Defence as Deputy Chief of the General Staff, responsible for forces organisation and weapon development and became the leading figure in the reorganisation of the Territorial Army, something which made him unpopular. It was a controversial decision therefore to promote him to general and, in 1965, give him command of the British Army of the Rhine and the parallel command of NATO's Northern Army Group, but his ability to speak several languages made him a natural choice, as did his friendship with foreign soldiers such as General Kielmansegg of the Bundeswehr. In 1968 he wrote a highly controversial letter to The Times, critical of the British Government's apparent lack of concern over the strength of NATO forces in Europe but signed the letter as a NATO officer, not as a British commander. [ 1 ]

After retirement from the Army, Sir John continued to be active in several areas. From 1968 to 1975 he was Principal of King's College London. He proved to be a popular figure, addressing gatherings of students on several occasions, and attending at least one NUS demonstration for higher student grants.

In 1978, Sir John wrote a novel, The Third World War: August 1985, which was a fictionalized scenario of the Third World War based on a Soviet Army invasion of West Germany in 1985. It was followed in 1982 by The Third World War: The Untold Story, which elaborated on the original, including more detail from a Soviet perspective. The American author Max Brooks has cited Hackett's work as one source of inspiration for the latter's World War Z novel. [ 5 ]

His obituary in The Times called him a man of "intellect and prodigious courage." [ 6 ]


John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910 - 1997) - History

Abstract

Irish-born Sir John Winthrop Hackett (1848-1916) achieved substantial political and social standing in Western Australia through his editorship and part-ownership of the West Australian newspaper, his position as a Legislative Council member and as a layman in the Anglican Church. The thesis illustrates his strong commitment to numerous undertakings, including his major role in the establishment of Western Australia's first University. This thesis will argue that whatever Hackett attempted to achieve in Western Australia, his philosophy can be attributed to his Irish Protestant background including his student days at Trinity College Dublin. After arriving in Australia in 1875 and teaching at Trinity College Melbourne until 1882, his ambitions took him to Western Australia where he aspired to be accepted and recognised by the local establishment. He was determined that his achievements would not only be acknowledged by his contemporaries, but also just as importantly be remembered in posterity. After a failed attempt to run a sheep station, he found success as part-owner and editor of the West Australian newspaper. Outside of his business interests, Hackett’s commitment to the Anglican Church was unflagging. At the same time, he was instrumental in bringing about the abolition of state aid to church schools in Western Australia, which he saw as advantaging the Roman Catholic Church. He was a Legislative Council member for 25 years during which time he used his editorship of the West Australian, to campaign successfully on a number of social, industrial and economic issues ranging from divorce reform to the provision of economic infrastructure. As a delegate to the National Australasian Conventions he continually strove to improve the conditions under which Western Australia would join Federation. His crowning achievement was to establish the state’s first university, which he also generously provided for in his will. One of the most influential men in Western Australian history, his career epitomised the energy and ambition of the well-educated immigrant

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Honours and awards [ edit | edit source ]

1938 Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
1941 Military Cross (MC) ⎛]
1942 Distinguished Service Order (DSO) ⎜]
1945 Bar to DSO ⎝]
1953 Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) ⎞]
1958 Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)
1962 Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) ⎟]
1967 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)

Hackett was also mentioned in despatches six times:

1) 1936 Palestine 2) 1937 "Trans-Jordan Frontier Force" 3) 1937 "Trans-Jordan Frontier Force" 4) 1944 Italy ⎠] 5) 1945 Arnhem ⎡] 6) 1949 Palestine


Hackett

Hackett is a family name for the following people:

  • AJ Hackett (* 1958), New Zealand entrepreneur
  • Albert Hackett (1900–1995), American author and actor
  • Bobby Hackett (1915–1976), American jazz musician
  • Bobby Hackett (swimmer) (* 1959), American swimmer
  • Buddy Hackett (1924–2003), American comedian and actor
  • Chris Hackett (* 1983), English soccer player
  • DJ Hackett (born 1981), American football player
  • Daniel Hackett (* 1987), Italian basketball player
  • Deborah Vernon Hackett (1887–1965), Australian manager
  • Grant Hackett (* 1980), Australian swimmer
  • James Henry Hackett (1800–1871), American actor
  • John Francis Hackett (1911–1990), American clergyman, auxiliary bishop in Hartford
  • Harold Hackett (1878–1937), American tennis player
  • Horatio Balch Hackett (1808–1875), American Bible scholar
  • James Hackett (* 1955), American manager
  • Jeff Hackett (* 1968), Canadian ice hockey player
  • Joan Hackett (1934–1983), American actress
  • John Hackett (musician) , British musician
  • John K. Hackett (1821–1879), American lawyer and politician
  • John Winthrop Hackett Sr. (1848–1916), Australian politician
  • John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910–1997), British general and writer
  • Karl Hackett (1893–1948), American actor
  • Keith Hackett (* 1944), English football referee
  • Margaux Hackett (* 1999), New Zealand freestyle skier
  • Martha Hackett (born 1961), American actress
  • Nicole Hackett (* 1978), Australian triathlete
  • Pat Hackett , American novelist and screenwriter
  • Patricia Hackett (1908–1963), Australian actress, theater producer and lawyer
  • Pippa Hackett , Irish politician
  • Richard N. Hackett (1866–1923), American politician
  • Semoy Hackett (* 1988), sprinter from Trinidad and Tobago
  • Sheryl Hackett (1960–2005), singer and percussionist from Barbados ( Jule Neigel , Peter Maffay , BAP )
  • Steve Hackett (born 1950), British musician
  • Thomas C. Hackett († 1851), American politician
  • William Hackett (1918–1999), American mountaineer
  • William Philip Hackett (1878–1954), Australian clergyman, teacher and propagandist


Hackett is the name of the following places in the United States:


'Shan' Hackett : the pursuit of exactitude

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Contributions and Achievements

As Lady Mayoress, Lady Hackett Moulden raised £100,000 for Adelaide charities, re-established the SA branch of the National Council of Women and was its president in 1921. She also became the first State Commissioner of the Girl Guides Association.

During her time as Lady Mayoress she completely transformed her reception room at the Town Hall into an Oriental lounge. She used her artistic taste to produce this exotic style by specially chosen upholsterings, carpet, frieze, electric light shades, and wall decorations. Easy chairs and settees were covered with chintzes and Japanese cretonne of varying tones in Oriental designs, with cushions to match. Wooden Japanese shades were covered with soft red silk that shed a delightfully becoming glow, and on the walls were many beautiful plaques. In one panel was a magnificent snow leopard skin with head complete, in another was an artistic picture worked in silks, while handsome vases and bowls completed the picture along with bowls of exquisite pink roses and carnations that adorned the tables and piano.

During the 1920 Australian visit of the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VIII) she cheerfully accommodated half the royal suite in her own home. When the Mouldens lived in the two storey bluestone mansion at 195 Brougham Place known as Lordello they renamed it Moulden Court after extensive renovations. After her husband’s death in 1932 Deborah owned the mansion until 1947 when she sold it to become part of St Ann’s College, the residency for women attending the University of Adelaide.

While married to Sir Frank, and against advice of experts who said it was ‘a wild goose chase’, she invested much of her Hackett legacy in the mining of rare metals in West Australia and the Northern Territory. Her Wodgina mine became the richest source of tantalum (used in high quality steel alloys) in the world. However, during World War II the Australian government requisitioned it for the duration. As she was to say after the war, ‘My metal was used in radar and radar saved Britain.’

Deborah’s legacy included her popular publication Australian Household Guide compiled in the year of the death of her first husband in 1916. Heralded as the Australian Mrs Beeton, she edited a 1,136 page compendium of recipes, domestic advice, household lore and handy hints written by experts in many fields. A month before her marriage to Moulden when she moved to Adelaide it was reported that ‘the cookery book lady is over from Perth’.

So popular was the compendium that a second edition was published in 1940 that raised £10,000 for the Australian Red Cross and was re-titled Lady Hackett’s Household Guide. (UWA University News 20/8/2012 – Household hints from the Hackett family) In 1949 her husband Basil Buller Murphy wrote about her mining interests in A Lady of Rare Metal and in 1958 Deborah also wrote An Attempt to Eat the Moon, a book of legends of Dordenup Aborigines from Western Australia that was illustrated by Elizabeth Durack.

As a teenager she was credited with the discovery of the beautiful Lake Cave near Margaret River, West Australia. She is also credited with being the first commercial passenger to fly from Australia to England in 1934 when she hired Dutch airmen, Captain Koene Dirk Parmentier and co-pilot Jan Johannes Moll who were returning home after competing in the Centenary Air Race and took her with them to London where she needed to be in a hurry, for business purposes.

In 1932 the University of Western Australia conferred her with the degree of Doctor of Laws as the widow of Winthrop Hackett.


Hackett wurde als Sohn des ursprünglich aus Tipperary stammenden australischen Politikers John Winthrop Hackett in Perth geboren. Nach seiner Schulausbildung ging er nach Großbritannien. Dort studierte er zunächst Malerei am Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design in London und anschließend Klassische Altertumswissenschaft am New College der University of Oxford.

Nach Abschluss des Studiums trat Hackett 1933 in die britische Armee ein, wo er den 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars angehörte.

1936 wurde er zunächst nach Palästina geschickt. Von 1937 bis 1941 gehörte er der Trans-Jordan Frontier Force an. Insgesamt wurde er bis 1941 dreimal im Kriegsbericht erwähnt.

Während seiner Teilnahme am Syrisch-Libanesischen Feldzug wurde Hackett verwundet und mit dem Military Cross ausgezeichnet.

Während des Afrikafeldzugs erlitt Hackett schwere Verbrennungen, als sein Panzer vom Typ M3 Stuart beim Kampf um das Flugfeld von Sidi Rezegh abgeschossen wurde. Für diesen Einsatz wurde er mit dem Distinguished Service Order ausgezeichnet. Anschließend war er im Britischen Hauptquartier in Kairo eingesetzt, wo er maßgeblich an der Gründung verschiedener Spezialeinheiten beteiligt war, darunter der Long Range Desert Group und des Special Air Service.

1943 wurde Hackett das Kommando über die 4. britische Fallschirmjägerbrigade übertragen. Es folgten Einsätze in Italien und im Herbst 1944 während der Operation Market Garden bei Arnheim. Nach einer weiteren schweren Verwundung geriet er in deutsche Gefangenschaft und wurde in ein Krankenhaus eingeliefert. Mit Hilfe der holländischen Widerstandsbewegung konnte er jedoch entkommen und wurde mehrere Monate in Ede versteckt gehalten. Für seinen Einsatz bei Arnheim wurde er zum zweiten Mal mit dem Distinguished Service Order ausgezeichnet.

1947 kehrte Hackett nach Palästina zurück, wo er das Kommando über die Trans-Jordan Frontier Force übernahm, die jedoch aufgrund des britischen Rückzugs aus der Region bald aufgelöst wurde.

1954 wurde er zunächst Kommandeur der 20th Armoured Brigade. Zwei Jahre später, nach einer Beförderung zum Generalmajor, wurde ihm der Befehl über die 7. Panzerdivision übertragen. 1958 übernahm er das Kommando über das Royal Military College of Science in Shrivenham. 1961 wurde Hackett zum Generalleutnant befördert und wurde kommandierender General der Britischen Armee in Nordirland. 1963 wurde er stellvertretender Generalstabschef. Zwei Jahre später übernahm er das Kommando über die Britische Rheinarmee sowie die Northern Army Group der NATO.

1968 schrieb Hackett einen Leserbrief an die Times, der am 6. Februar erschien und in dem sich Hackett kritisch über die seiner Meinung nach unzureichende Stärke der konventionellen NATO-Streitkräfte in Europa (speziell der britischen) sowie über die unterschätzte Bedrohung durch den Warschauer Pakt äußerte. Da er dies als britischer Offizier nicht hätte tun dürfen, unterschrieb er den Brief offiziell als NATO-Offizier. Der Brief führte zu heftigen Kontroversen in der britischen Öffentlichkeit und letztendlich zu Hacketts Pensionierung. [1] [2]

Nach seinem Rückzug ins Zivilleben war Hackett von 1968 bis 1975 Prinzipal am King’s College London.

Hackett verfasste zahlreiche Bücher über militärische Themen. Sein bekanntestes Werk ist das 1978 erschienene Buch Der Dritte Weltkrieg: Hauptschauplatz Deutschland (Originaltitel: The Third World War: August 1985). Darin beschreibt Hackett rückblickend einen fiktiven Angriff von Truppen des Warschauer Pakts auf Westeuropa im Jahre 1985, der nach einem begrenzten Atomkrieg mit einem Sieg der NATO-Truppen endet. Das Vorwort zur deutschen Ausgabe schrieb der deutsche General Johann Adolf Graf von Kielmansegg.


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