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Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey is one of the most important historic abbeys in Britain and has been the focal point of myth, legend, and important historical events for almost 2,000 years.

Glastonbury Abbey history

Although the original stone church of Glastonbury Abbey was constructed by Saxon King Ine of Wessex in around 712, the site has a history said to trace back to the 1st century.

It is believed that construction of the old church took place in 63 AD, and that Jesus was brought here by his great uncle, Joseph of Arimathea. The legend of King Arthur is also associated with Glastonbury Abbey, as in the 12th century it was believed that the tomb of the folkloric king and his wife Guinevere was found there.

The stone Saxon church underwent significant enlargement in the 10th century, under the remit of the Abbot of Glastonbury and future Archbishop of Canterbury, St. Dunstan. It was further added to by the Normans – so much so that the 1086 Doomsday Book listed Glastonbury Abbey as the nation’s wealthiest monastery!

Sadly much of this Glastonbury Abbey was destroyed in a great fire in 1184, and a new Great Church was constructed and consecrated in 1213. Glastonbury Abbey would continue to thrive for a few more centuries, only to finally be dissolved by King Henry VIII in 1539. During this time the last abbot of Glastonbury, Richard Whiting, was hung, drawn and quartered atop Glastonbury Tor for his refusal to relinquish the abbey and his sustained allegiance to the Catholic Church.

Glastonbury Abbey today

Today, the picturesque ruins of Glastonbury Abbey are a popular tourist site. Many people come to see it for its stunning ruins, others to see the spot where Arthur and Guinevere’s tomb may have once lay.

The remains of the abbey demonstrate what was once a thriving monastery with its ornate stonework and towering architecture, while inside displays on the lives of the monks who lived there may be found. A highlight of the site is the 12th century Lady Chapel, whose interior has been restored with painted murals and stained glass, breathing life back into what was once the abbey’s most sacred spot.

Getting to Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey is located in the centre of Glastonbury and can be reached by taking Junction 23 off the M5 and following the signs into the town. St Dunstan’s Car Park is a 10-minute walk to the abbey, while a number of bus services run to the Town Hall stop next to the car park on Magdalene Street.


Glastonbury

Glastonbury ( / ˈ ɡ l æ s t ən b ( ə ) r i / ) [3] is a town and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated at a dry point on the low-lying Somerset Levels, 23 miles (37 km) south of Bristol. The town, which is in the Mendip district, had a population of 8,932 in the 2011 census. [1] Glastonbury is less than 1 mile (2 km) across the River Brue from Street, which is now larger than Glastonbury.

Evidence from timber trackways such as the Sweet Track show that the town has been inhabited since Neolithic times. Glastonbury Lake Village was an Iron Age village, close to the old course of the River Brue and Sharpham Park approximately 2 miles (3 km) west of Glastonbury, that dates back to the Bronze Age. Centwine was the first Saxon patron of Glastonbury Abbey, which dominated the town for the next 700 years. One of the most important abbeys in England, it was the site of Edmund Ironside's coronation as King of England in 1016. Many of the oldest surviving buildings in the town, including the Tribunal, George Hotel and Pilgrims' Inn and the Somerset Rural Life Museum, which is based at the site of a 14th-century abbey manor barn, [4] often referred to as a tithe barn, are associated with the abbey. The Church of St John the Baptist dates from the 15th century.

The town became a centre for commerce, which led to the construction of the market cross, Glastonbury Canal and the Glastonbury and Street railway station, the largest station on the original Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. The Brue Valley Living Landscape is a conservation project managed by the Somerset Wildlife Trust and nearby is the Ham Wall National Nature Reserve.

Glastonbury has been described as having a New Age community, [5] and possibly being where New Age beliefs originated at the turn of the twentieth century [6] when a feminine landscape [ clarification needed ] was created where Christianity had ‘first touched Britain’, [7] which attracts people with New Age and Neopagan beliefs, and is notable for myths and legends often related to Glastonbury Tor, concerning Joseph of Arimathea, the Holy Grail and King Arthur. Joseph is said to have arrived in Glastonbury and stuck his staff into the ground, when it flowered miraculously into the Glastonbury Thorn. The presence of a landscape zodiac around the town has been suggested but no evidence has been discovered. The Glastonbury Festival, held in the nearby village of Pilton, takes its name from the town.


Traditional account of foundation

For the early history of the foundation the chief authority is William of Malmesbury in his "De antiquitate Glastoniensis Ecclesiæ" and "De Gestis Regum" (lib. I). The former work, composed apparently about 1135, was written for the express glorification of Glastonbury and consequently gives the legendary history much more fully than the latter. Malmesbury's story of the foundation and early years is briefly as follows:

In the year 63 A.D. St. Joseph of Arimathea with eleven companions was sent to Britain from Gaul by St. Philip the Apostle. The king of the period, Aviragus, gave to these twelve holy men the Island of Ynyswitrin and there, in obedience to a vision, they built a church in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. This church, called the vetusta ecclesia or lignea basilica, from its being constructed of osiers wattled together, was found more than one hundred years later by Fagan and Deruvian, missionaries sent to Lucius, King of the Britons, by Pope Eleutherius. Here therefore the missionaries settled, repaired the vetusta ecclesia, and, on their departure, chose twelve of their converts to remain in the island as hermits in memory of the original twelve. This community of twelve hermits is described as continuing unmodified until the coming of St. Patrick, the Apostle of the Irish, in 433, who taught the hermits to live together as cenobites, himself became their abbot, and remained at Glastonbury until his death, when his body was buried in the vetusta ecclesia. After St. Patrick his disciple, St. Benignus, became abbot at Glastonbury, while St. Daid of Menevia is also stated to have come thither, built another church, and presented a famous jewel known as the Great Sapphire of Glastonbury. The chronicler then goes on to record the death and burial of King Arthur at Glastonbury and gives a list of British saints who either died and were buried at Glastonbury, or whose bodies were translated thither on the gradual western advance of the conquering English.

The first impression produced on a modern mind by William of Malmesbury's pages is that the whole is one barefaced invention, but on this point the late Professor Freeman may be quoted as an unbiased authority (Proc. of Somerset Archæological Soc., vol. XXVI): "We need not believe that the Glastonbury legends are facts but the existence of those legends is a great fact.&hellip The legends of the spot go back to the days of the Apostles. We are met at the very beginning with the names of St. Phillip and St. James, of their twelve disciples, with Joseph of Arimathea at their head,&hellip we read the tale of Fagan and Deruvian we read of Indractus and Gildas and Patrick and David and Columb and Bridget, all dwellers in or visitors to the first spot where the Gospel had shone in Britain. No fiction, no dream could have dared to set down the names of so many worthies of the earlier races of the British Islands in the Liber Vitæ of Durham or Peterborough. Now I do not ask you to believe these legends I do ask you to believe that there was some special cause why legends of this kind should grow, at all events why they should grow in such a shape and in such abundance, round Glastonbury alone of all the great monastic churches of Britain." And he explains the "special cause" as follows: "The simple truth then is this, that among all the greater churches of England, Glastonbury is the only one where we may be content to lay aside the name of England and fall back on the older name of Britain,&hellip as I have often said, the talk about the ancient British Church, which is simply childish nonsense when it is talked at Canterbury or York or London, ceases to be childish nonsense when it is talked at Glastonbury." This much therefore seems certain, that when at last the West Saxons captured Glastonbury there already existed there, as at Glendalough or Clonmacnoise, a group of small churches built in typical Celtic fashion and occupied by the British monks. One of these, the oldest and most venerated of all, the vetusta ecclesia or lignea basilica, was preserved, and by its survival stamped the later buildings at Glastonbury with their special character. Indeed, its successor, falsely called the Chapel of St. Joseph, is the chief feature and loveliest fragment in the ruins that exist today.

With the coming of the English the mist clears. In the first years of the eighth century Ina, King of the West Saxons, founded the great church of the Apostles Sts. Peter and Paul, and endowed the monastery, granting certain charters which, in substance at any rate, are admitted as genuine (see Dugdale, "Monasticon Anglicanum", I). The monastery, thus firmly established, maintained a high reputation until the advance of the Danes in the ninth century, when it was ravaged and despoiled and sank into a low state. From this it was raised by the work of St. Dunstan who, as a boy, received his education in the cloister at Glastonbury, and later became abbot there, ruling the monastery, except for one brief period of banishment, until his elevation to the episcopate. (See D UNSTAN, S AINT .) There can be no doubt that St. Dunstan enforced the Rule of St. Benedict at Glastonbury as a part of his reform there, the fact being expressly recorded by his first biographer and intimate friend "the priest B.", who also tells us that in his day Irish pilgrims, learned men from whose books Dunstan himself learned much, were in the habit of coming to Glastonbury to worship at the tomb of one of their worthies, a Patrick, though doubtless not the Apostle of the Irish, which seems a clear proof of an independent Irish tradition confirming the local one mentioned above.

From St. Dunstan's date until the Normal Conquest the abbey prospered exceedingly, but in 1077 Egelnoth, the last Saxon abbot, was deposed by the Conqueror, and Thurstan, a Norman monk of Caen, installed in his place (Anglo- Saxon Chronicle, 1077). The new abbot at once began to change the local use as to the liturgy and chant for that of Fécamp. Violent disputes followed, which in 1083 ran so high that the abbot, to enforce obedience, called in armed soldiers, by whom two or three of the monks were slain and many more wounded. After this the king removed Thurstan, who was restored, however, by William Rufus and died as abbot in 1101. Under his successor Herlewin the abbey revived, but in 1184 a great fire destroyed almost the entire monastery, including the vetusta ecclesia. Rebuilding was begun at once. The beautiful stone chapel built on the site and in the shape of the lignea basilica was finished and consecrated on St. Barnabas' day, 1186, and the major ecclesia and other buildings commenced. Soon after this, however, with the consent of King Richard I, the abbey with all its revenues was annexed to the See of Bath and Wells, the bishop styling himself Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury. This meant disaster to the abbey, and an appeal was made to the pope. After much costly litigation the monks were upheld by the Holy See on every point, and the abbey's independence secured. To this incident must be assigned the long delay in completing the great church, which was not consecrated until 1303, one hundred and nineteen years after the fire. From this date until its suppression the history of the abbey is without exceptional incident. It continued to be one of the greatest pilgrim centres of England, and its connexion with the ancient British and Saxon Churches seems to have created a tendency to regard it almost as the representative of the "nationalist" aspect of the Church in England, as distinct from, and at times opposed to, the "international" forces centred at Christchurch, Canterbury. This was accentuated and embittered by a personal rivalry due to the claim of both churches to possess the body of the great St. Dunstan. No one denied that the saint had been buried at Canterbury, but the Glastonbury claim was based on a pretended transfer, alleged to have taken place in 1012 the relics, on their arrival at Glastonbury, being hidden away and not produced for public veneration until after the great fire in 1184, when a shrine was erected. That the whole story was a fabrication is clear from a letter of Eadmer, a monk of Canterbury, who declares that he had himself been present when the body was moved during the building of Lanfranc's cathedral at Canterbury in 1074, and also from the formal search and finding of the body in the Canterbury shrine in 1508 by Archbishop Warham, who then ordered the suppression of the Glastonbury shrine under pain of excommunication (Wharton, Anglia Sacra, II, 222-33).

Second only to St. Dunstan's shrine as an attraction to pilgrims was the tomb of King Arthur. The claim that Arthur was buried at Glastonbury seems to be a late one. In the "Gesta Regum" (I, xxviii) William of Malmesbury says expressly that the burial-place of Arthur was unknown. However, in his "De antiquitate Glastoniensis ecclesiæ" (Cap. De nobilibus Glastoniæ sepultis), the text of which is in a very corrupt state, a passage asserts that Arthur was buried at Glastonbury inter duas piramides. Professor Freeman rejects this as an interpolation added after Geoffrey of Monmouth's time, when the Arthurian legend had reached its final form through that writer's fabrications. There is clear evidence that the two pyramids did actually exist, and in 1191, we are told, Abbot Henry de Soliaco made a search for Arthur's body between them. Giraldus Cambrensis, who writes apparently as an eyewitness of the scene, relates (Speculum Ecclesiæ, dist. ii, cap. ix) that at a depth of seven feet a large flat stone was found, on the underside of which was fixed a leaden cross. This was removed from the stone and in rude characters facing the stone were the words Hic jacet sepultus inclitus Rex Arturius in insula Avallonia. Under this at a considerable depth was a large coffin of hollowed oak containing the bones of the king and his Queen Guinevere in separate compartments. These were later removed to a shrine in the great church. Leland (Assertio Arthuri, 43, 50, 51) records that he saw both the tomb and the leaden cross with the inscription, and Camden (Britannia, Somerset) states that the latter still existed in his day, though he does not say where it was when he saw it.


Glastonbury Abbey had its beginnings in the early 7th century as a monastery. It was founded by Britons as a community for British monks.

In 658 Cenwalh of Wessex led the Saxon army in the Battle of Peonnum and they gained control of Somerset, as well as the abbey. The British Bregored, was allowed to remain abbot of Glastonbury Abbey till his death in 669. Berhtwald, an Anglo-Saxon, was then appointed as abbot.

Under the reign of the Saxon King Ine of Wessex, the abbey gained another building in 712, a stone church, and the British monks who had stayed saw an improvement with the generous endowment Ine bestowed upon their community. Foundations of a stone church built by Ine&aposs orders can still be seen on the west end of the nave.

In the 9th century, the Danes attacked and severely damaged Glastonbury. In the tenth century the abbot of Glastonbury, Saint Dunstan, became Archbishop of Glastonbury and instituted the Benedictine Rule in 960.

The Benedictine rule, called the Horarium, was based on the Rule of St. Benedict of Nursia from the 6th century. It was a strict daily timetable established to prevent idleness in the life of the monks. Benedict believed that idleness is the enemy of the soul. Dunstan established that each day was divided into three activities: communal prayer, spiritual reading, and labor, which left no time for idleness.

Dunstan wasted no time and recreated the monastic life. He built new cloisters and focused on rebuilding the abbey.

There is a legend that Dunstan was asked by the Devil to re-shoe his horse. Instead, Dunstan nailed a horseshoe to the Devil&aposs hoof. It was so painful for the Devil, but Dunstan told him it would be taken off if the Devil promised to never enter a place where a horseshoe is over a door. The Devil has kept his promise to this day.


Glastonbury Abbey - History

Only open at certain times

he remains of Glastonbury Abbey are situated in Somerset in what was once a marshy landscape of small interconnected islands known as Avalon. A history of the Abbey was written by William of Malmsbury in around 1120. William's original work was lost in the fire that destroyed the abbey in 1184 but sections of that information made it into other written material and has survived. William states that in the early second century a British ruler called King Lucius returned from Rome with several missionaries and instructions to build a Christian church. The church known as the 'Old Church' was built on the site the present abbey remains. The Saxons also used the site for worship and construction of a better church was performed in the seventh century under King Ina (Ine). Under the Saxon King Edgar and Dunstan, who became the abbot, the abbey of Glastonbury flourished. Dunstan became abbot of Glastonbury in around 940 and under the Rule of St. Benedict the abbey's monks began to follow a stricter way of Christian life. The prosperity of the abbey also grew with the help of its wealthy patrons who donated money in return for the monks saying prayers for them. Dunstan also began a period of reconstruction work increasing the size of the church.

After the Conquest of 1066 the Normans took control at the abbey. The Norman abbots Turstin and Herlwin (1101-1120) both undertook building work to improved the abbey. But in May of 1184 a major fire broke out and badly damaged the church. The 'Old Church' was replaced with a new building and the Lady Chapel was complete enough to be consecrated in 1186. The Lady Chapel, located at the west end of the church, can still be seen today.

T he abbey is linked to both the Holy Grail and King Arthur. Legend states that Joseph of Arimathea travelled to Avalon with either the Holy Grail or some other Holy relic and buried it near the abbey. King Arthur is associated with the abbey. In 1191 the graves of two people believed to be King Arthur and Queen Guinevere were uncovered in the cemetery. The find would have been very well timed as the church was going through a large amount of building work and the donations given by pilgrims visiting the site to see the remains of Arthur would have been most welcome.

The Abbey was confiscated from the Church as were many others in the period of the Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII. The last abbot of at Glastonbury was Richard Whiting and when he refused to hand over the abbey he was arrested and executed for treason at the top of Glastonbury Tor.

At the beginning on the twentieth century a man called Bligh Bond claimed that he could receive information from long-dead members of the abbey about the locations of the buried structures. The information was sent to him in the form of automatic writing, where Bond would hold the pen but the movements were controlled by the spirits. Whether his explanation is true or not he did uncover several lost sections of the church.


Tuesday, August 21, 2012

This Blog describes how this huge display of geometrical precision across the British landscape was understood and known to exist as late as late the 1300’s. Also, the presence of the St. Michael Ley line was known about by Melkin in the sixth century. An array of churches were built upon this ancient system to point out to posterity the location of the tomb of Jesus by the Templars and also to mark the spot where they had buried their treasure.

Figure showing the Bifurcation point or the two forked line of Melkin’s prophecy which bisects inside the Avebury stone circle. The line which Melkin has sent us to find is 104 nautical miles away from Avebury and runs right through St. Michael’s hill just as Father William Good had instructed us as to where Joseph of Arimathea was ‘carefully hidden’. The angle at which the bifurcation toward mons-acutus or Montacute bisects the Saint Michael ley line is 13 degress as Melkin had let us know.

This secret location is called the Island of Avalon and the same monk Melkin visited this island which is now called Burgh Island, at the death of Britain’s famous King Arthur. Here he found arcane information from the Temple in Jerusalem that was brought to England by Joseph of Arimathea. This information with an account of the first Christians arrival with Mary Magdalene was written in a book composed by Melkin giving account of the time from the arrival of these early Christians, up until the time of King Arthur. This book became known as 'The Grail book', that found its way to France when Melkin established an early hermitage on Mont- St -Michel in Normandy. This book then through the troubadour family of the counts of Pitou and Aquitaine gave rise to the wide array of Grail stories. A close family connection in the person of Henry Blois or as many knew him as Monseigneur Blois became the Master Blehis that was Abbot of Glastonbury and was the first to expound from the French Grail literature and know of the English tradition that existed at Glastonbury. It was Henry of Blois that also left the clue at Glastonbury regarding the burial site of Joseph of Arimathea. This came into the possesion of Father William Good and it confirms Melkin's directions to the Island of Avalon or the Island of Sarras of the Grail romances.

Island of Avalon, coveting the pagans in death, above all others (places) in the world for their entombment there, it is honoured by the circle of portentous prophesy (Avebury) and in the future will be adorned by those that give praise to the highest. The father’s pearl, (Jesus) mighty in judgement (or virtuous through new wine), the noblest of pagans, sleeps 104 miles from it (Avebury), by whom he recieved interment by the sea from Joseph named from Arimathea, and has taken his eternal rest there, and he lies on a line that is two forked between that and a meridian, in an angle on a coastal Tor, in a crater, that was already prepared, (with powers from on high, as from an adorable maiden, up high in Ictis is the tomb and those dwelling there are at 13 degrees.) above which one can go at the extremity of the verge, high up in Ictis to the place they abide to the south at thirteen degrees.


It is one of the objectives of this enquiry to elucidate to the reader the interconnectedness of what is potentially part of a huge ancient functioning system and its relevance in the present era. Who was it in the modern era and which organised body realised that some planned out design is still extant on the British landscape? Did the later designers of the 1300s who built on top of the very locations on which ancient man had built his design, know of its function and have knowledge of its effect upon the inhabitants of Britain?

The quantities mentioned and the heavy transport loads involved from Dartmoor as far as the Isle of Wight over 100 miles away should exclude any further mention being given as a credible location for Ictis even given the transport risks of such a valuable commodity. The problem with all the previous possible candidates for the Island of Ictis is that scholars or researchers have always used information selectively to support their own views on the location. It is known that tin mining had first started in between the Erm and Avon estuary in the early British Bronze Age. There is ample archaeological evidence to show that tin streaming existed high up on the moors behind South Brent at Shipley Bridge on the Avon, at least to 1600BC and probably beyond.

From seaward, the approach to the river mouth looks like a ‘lee shore’ which no sailor would want to approach unless he had prior knowledge of the passage between the waves leading to a haven behind the spit. From a seaward perspective, a passing vessel would only see the cliffs in the background and never assume the tidal river turned tightly to starboard behind Bantham dunes. Due to the fact that the entrance is not wide, the entrance is disguised from seaward as a breaking shoreline at nearly all states of the tide as shown in figure 12, but a clear entrance is visible in the photograph viewed from the top of the Island of Ictis.

Gildas circa.540 AD, the earliest source for the arrival of Jesus’s message in Britain attests, that Christianity first reached Britain when Tiberius was Emperor around 37AD. The Glastonbury tradition gives Joseph building the first church circa 67AD and both Tertullian 200 AD and Eusebius 280 AD, each confirm an early date for the first Christian message reaching Britain. Tertullian states that:
“For in whom else have the people of the world trusted, except in Christ who has already come. How then the varieties of Gentiles and the many borders of the Moors, all the boundaries of the Spaniards, and the various nations of the Gauls, and the regions of the Britons, inaccessible to the Romans, but subdued by the true Christ”.

Whether or not Arthur was widely acknowledged to be buried in the Isle of Avalon, prior to the proliferation of the Grail material is unknown but seems probable based upon the assumption that it was Melkin who is responsible for the source from which Geoffrey of Monmouth proclaims Athur’s burial place.

We cannot be sure of the name of that Island at that date when Melkin wrote, but as will become clear that Melkin knew it was the old Ictis of the Greek and Latin chroniclers. He would hardly have created a puzzle naming the Island of Avallonis as the island in which Joseph and Arthur were buried, if the name of that Island had that particular appellation at that time. This would negate the purport of the riddle and for this reason we can assume that it was Melkin who is responsible for the name Avalon.

Arthur is said, as we have mentioned, to be buried in the Isle of Avalon and that someday he would return to his people. This brief prophetic suggestion was probably caused by the fact that no-one knew what happened to him or where he had been taken and stems from rumour created in the interim before Arthur was declared to be buried in Avalon by Melkin. This rumour still existed to the time when Thomas Malory tells us that 'some men say in many parts of England that King Arthur is not dead, but had by the will of our Lord Jesus into another place, and men say that he shall come again, and shall win the Holy Crosse.'

The fact that a Grail source, originating supposedly in France and Melkin’s Prophecy from Britain, both confer on Avalon some miraculous status, would appear to suggest that there is a common understanding between these works. What exactly does it mean that Arthur would return to his people except that he was lost to them and no-one knew where his gravesite really was. When Joseph of Arimathea is uncovered, it will be discovered that Arthur is buried with him………then he will be returned to his people, but only one man could know of his whereabouts, the same person who says who else is buried also in the Island of Avalon, from having seen the tin vault and what it contained.

From when the next Abbot Chinnock arrived on the scene in 1375 until 1420, big changes happened at Glastonbury. In 1382 Chinnock restored the ruined chapel in the cemetery and re-dedicated it to St. Michael and St Joseph of Arimathea, also adorning the Abbey with excerpts from John of Glastonbury's Cronica in the main church encouraging those who came into the Abbey to read of the legend. Anything that promoted the Abbey by associating it still further with Joseph of Arimathea was acceptable. The end result of all this self-promotion of Glastonbury Abbey was at last, to be independent of the See of Wells, and through their associations with the illustrious Arthur and Joseph, the Abbey continued to gain primacy, wealth, and pilgrims.

Many have thought that the originator of the French material is referred to in the "Elucidation", prefixed to the rhymed version of "Percival le Gallois" under the name of "Master Blihis" and this pseudonym seems to refer to Henry de Blois who in French circles would have been known as Monseigneur Blois, but in British circles as Henry of Blois (1101�). He was often known as Henry of Winchester and was Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey from 1126, and Bishop of Winchester from 1129 to his death.

The first thing to notice is that the genealogy starts with Joseph’s Nephew and this raises the question of what relation was Helians to Jesus

Showing the Island of Avalon described in the Perlesvaus.


Showing How the Grail Stories Confirm The Location of Burgh Island as Avalon

In the Dark Ages, after the death of King Arthur, a monk known as Melkin, left for posterity a riddle or prophecy which exposed the burial site of Joseph of Arimathea. This location, known as the Island of Avalon, has long been thought to exist near Glastonbury abbey. Glastonbury is also thought to have been the place where King Arthur's tomb was found. However, in this exposé, we will show the location of the yet unearthed tomb of King Arthur. Arthur's resting place is also on the same island where Joseph of Arimathea's sepulchre still lies undiscovered.

The Island of Avalon has been associated with the tor at Glastonbury because the monks at the medieval abbey exaggerated the previous association with Joseph of Arimathea to attract pilgrims. The myth that Glastonbury tor is somehow connected or even synonymous with the Island of Avalon is probably down to a man called Henry Blois, better known as Master Blihis, who was an abbot at Glastonbury abbey.
The author has deciphered the meaning behind the riddle known as Melkin's prophecy, upon which the mythical status of Glastonbury is founded. It is due to the fragment of Melkin's prophecy that Glastonbury polemicists, recognizing its antiquity, desperately contrived an association with Joseph of Arimathea's burial site and that of King Arthur.
This was possible due to everyone's ignorance in the middle ages of the location of Avalon. The subtle translocation of the isle of Avalon can be witnessed in the evolving interpolation of the prophecy by Glastonbury chroniclers keen to promote the connection with the uncle of Jesus. The 'Vaus d'Avaron' of French Grail literature is described in the story line in some Grail romances as pertaining to a region of valleys south of Dartmoor and the island of Avalon fits the description of Burgh Island. The genuine historical Avalon had beaches it was tidal and had ships that visited it. unlike Glastonbury or its environs.

The monks riddle which he left for posterity, when deciphered, clearly indicates with pinpoint geometrical accuracy, the whereabouts of the resting place of King Arthur and Joseph of Arimathea in the Island of Avalon. This is evidently not at Glastonbury.
The strange thing is that the geometric puzzle left by Melkin describes directions that are derived from the Saint Michael line of churches which runs across southern England.

For the skeptic, the fact that a 'bifurcated line' mentioned in Melkin's prophecy (Joseph lies on a bifurcated line), is the Saint Michael line. causes many to assume there could be no link between the two. Most researchers have assumed the directions are local and relative to the old church at Glastonbury Abbey. This is all part of the interpolation purposely propagated by the Glastonbury establishment's chroniclers, in an attempt to be accounted the resting place of such an illustrious person.
The churches and chapels, built upon an ancient line of earthworks that demarcate the St. Michael line has been put there by design. When interlinked with other St. Michael churches (not on the Michael line), these Michaeline chapels act as markers on a map, leading to the lost island of Avalon. They clearly show that the chapels have be built as a devise to coincide with the precise instructional data provided by the prophecy of Melkin.

This site will show how this huge display of geometrical precision across the British landscape was understood and known to exist as late as late the 1300’s.
The accuracy of the geometry confirms that in antiquity, the presence of the St. Michael line was known about by Melkin in the sixth century. long before the churches and chapels dedicated to the prince of the heavenly host were built. The array of churches dedicated to the archangel were built upon this ancient line of earthworks to point out to posterity the location of the tomb of Jesus by the ‘illuminati’ of the Templar order with the dual intent. to mark the spot where they buried their treasure.

This hitherto hidden location is called the Island of Avalon and Melkin visited this island nowadays is known as Burgh Island. It becomes apparent that Melkin was present at the death of Britain’s famous King Arthur and he states who and what he saw in the Tomb.
In the tomb, Melkin found arcane information from the Temple in Jerusalem which had been brought to England by Joseph of Arimathea. This information, with an account of the Holy Family's arrival with Mary Magdalene, was written in a book composed by Melkin. This book gave account of the time from the arrival of these early Christians through a bloodline of 'Grail Keepers'. up until the time of King Arthur.
The book became known as 'The Grail book', which found its way to France, Evidence points to Melkin who may well have established an early hermitage on Mont-Saint-Michel in Normandy.
'The book of the Grail', through the troubadour family of the counts of Pitou and Aquitaine, gave rise to the wide array of Grail stories propagated through the medieval courts of France. A close family connection to Eleanor of Aquitaine in the person of Henry Blois (or as many knew him 'Monseigneur Blois'), became the 'Master Blohis' who was Abbot of Glastonbury. He was the first to expound from the French Grail literature by compiling the 'Perlesvaus', but he also was aware of the English traditions of the prophecy of Melkin which existed at Glastonbury and was aware of other manuscripts written by Melkin that became the source of Welsh Arthurian literature.
Henry of Blois however never knew the location of Avalon, but it was him who left the clue regarding Joseph of Arimathea being 'carefully hidden' at Montacute. This essential confirmational clue, not mentioned in the original prophecy, eventually came into the possession of Father William Good. It confirms Melkin's directions to the Island of Avalon and also endorses the proposition that the Michaeline chapels were constructed upon an older network of prominent earth mounds.
Unfortunately many researchers have denied the existence of alignment in the design of these ancient earthworks which became known as Ley lines. The mention of a Ley line for the majority of researchers has led to the refusal to accept the obvious parallels with the Michaeline structures and the denial of any association with the precision of Melkin's geometry. In fact some professed archaeologists refuse the existence of the ancient alignment of Avebury, Glastonbury tor, Burrow Mump and the Hurlers (to give but a few), simply because it is called a 'Ley line' and they don't understand the reasons behind the alignment.

‘And did those feet’, a book by Michael Goldsworthy, clearly shows that the body of Jesus is in fact buried with Joseph of Arimathea within this newly determined Avalon island in Devon. The Island used to be known as the fabled Island of Ictis by classical Greek and Latin chroniclers. However the Island contains within it an ancient tin vault. This hewn out tin storage deposit, which was used by the 'emporium' tin trading island of Ictis. became the tomb for Jesus, Joseph and a collection of British nobles from antiquity . It had originally been used to store tin ingots when the Island of Ictis monopolised the trade of tin through the Phoenicians to the ancient world.

The confirmation of the whereabouts of this tomb is given by precise geometrical instructions upon the British landscape. These directions left in the obtuse Latin puzzle by the monk Melkin, (once deciphered), lead us to the grave site. The islands position is verified by the clue given to the Jesuit priest, Father Good, who lived in the sixteenth century. He deposited this vital corroborative clue concerning the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea in the English college in Rome.
Father Good however, was unaware of the significance of the clue he was given concerning how Joseph of Arimathea was 'Carefully hidden' in Montacute. However, someone else knew of the island's location and how its location was determined by these St. Michael dedicated sites. Since the time that the Templars visited the island with three treasure ships, to bury their treasure some one or some organisation has tried to hide the evidence that was rigourously guarded and passed to posterity by William Good. The reason for this seems to be that should we not have decoded Melkin's instructions. the island might have been discovered sooner by the geometry which pertains to the Michaeline structures alone i.e both Burgh Island and Montecute both being prominent hill top features like the other St. Michael sites.
The three copies of 'Maihew's Trophea' have all had this information concerning Montacute removed. Were it not for a copy that existed in a private collection. the chapel that existed atop St. Michael's hill would not have been known to act as a corroborative marker within the array of Michaeline chapels. These act as geometric points, that, when joined up in straight lines, confirm the angle and measurement that points to the Island and the tomb indicated by Melkin as the burial Island of Joseph of Arimathea.

The Templars in the middle ages were aware of the location of this tomb and deposited their treasure in the same sepulchre on Christmas day 1307. They were also aware of the instructional data within Melkin's prophecy. Thus the Templars were responsible for re-defining the line that Melkin had referred to by the re-dedication of church sites.
The line of St. Michael churches built upon an ancient alignment that includes Glastonbury was probably instigated by the Megalithic builders of Avebury. What function this line had is at the moment unanswered, but the fact that St. Michael's hill at Montacute is similar to both the prominent hilltop sites of Glastonbury and Burrow Mump would indicate by its subsequent dedication to St.Michael that it, (before Melkin's geometry was known), could have been part of this alignment from the early Megalith culture of Britain.

However, the Templars removed one item from the old hewn out vault within the island, which, because science has been unable to explain its formation. has been classed as a fake. This artifact mentioned in the Gospels and throughout Grail literature has now become known as the Turin Shroud.

The Turin Shroud is described perfectly in Melkin's Latin puzzle once the solution is unravelled.
'Habet enim secum Ioseph in sarcophago duo fassula alba & argentea, cruore prophete Jhesu & sudore perimpleta': Joseph has with him in the sarcophagus a doubled white swaddling cloth covered with the blood and sweat of the prophet Jesus that was folded around him.

It must not be forgotten by the pedant that Melkin had purposely constructed an obtuse riddle which needed to be unraveled. It is for this reason the Glastonbury establishment found it easy to convince the gullible that the old church at the abbey and some superfluous line (that was supposedly indicated by a bronze plaque on a pillar), was relevant to the resting place of Joseph.
This fairly precise description of the shroud was given six hundred years before the shroud supposedly first appeared at Lirey in France. This was just fifty years after the Templar's visit to Burgh Island. so how could it be a fake. This artifact, described to exist in the tomb with Joseph can be derived from Melkin’s description as 'duo fassula.' This was due to misinterpretation encouraged at Glastonbury and so the arbitrary understanding of two jugs, later became synonymous with the Holy Grail.
This misconception occurred mostly by ignorance of the intended meaning of the puzzle. Thus the two vessels which were misunderstood to contain the blood and sweat of Jesus, became synonymous with the object of the Holy Grail. This misleading interpretation has transpired by the subtle twists of the prophecy's interpretation at Glastonbury by polemicists and of course the intended subtlety of Melkin. designing his prophecy as a riddle to be decoded.
The reader will learn on this site, that the Holy Grail is in fact something inestimably more valuable and these pages set out to explain what the Grail is and how the Grail stories came about.

The body of Jesus, around which the Turin Shroud was once wrapped, remained in the tin vault, steeped in Cedar oil. It is by being submerged in the oil that the image on the Turin Shroud was formed over a period of six hundred years. The image formation was caused by the interaction of Aneorobic detritus and Brownian motion within the oil as the shroud enveloped the body of Jesus.
Judging by Melkin’s description of the shroud and the fact that the whole cloth is covered with a yellow varnish like encrustation, left over from the evaporated oil, the shroud was most probably removed from the body around 5- 600AD by Melkin. The dried out cloth which had managed to transfer the faintest facial imprint to the back side image as it dried….. was then later removed from the Isle of Avalon by the Templars.
The Turin Shroud was essentially formed within what became known as the Grail Arc which is the tin lined coffin of Jesus. This is the box Joseph of Arimathea used to transport the body of Jesus to England that was filled with embalming fluid and from which it is said the ancient British kings were anointed. Both the shroud and the coffin are mentioned in the Grail Stories in numerous subliminal references with many references to the sweet smelling Cedar oil. This Grail ark or coffin brought to England by Joseph was not (for obvious reasons) mentioned specifically in the Grail romances, but is subliminally indicated as the tomb of an unidentified person. Eventually Joseph was laid to rest within the same Sepulchre.

The reason this Island which used to be called Ictis was chosen to house what is the holiest relic of all. is because it was not widely known about in the ancient world and its location was kept secret from the Romans. It was rumoured to exist through a report by one of the first Greek explorers to Britain named Pytheas.
Devon and Cornwall have a history in the tin industry and it was from this island that tin was traded with Joseph of Arimathea. who, Cornish tradition has always maintained, was a tin merchant and was accompanied on his trading missions by Jesus.
Diodorus Siculus gives us a clear description of this same island which Pytheas had named Ictis or 'Fish Island' due to the vast quantities of pilchards caught off the Island. Through Pytheas’ account of what he encountered at the tin trading island, Diodorus relates that ‘large quantities of tin’ were taken over to the island in carts across the sand bar at low tide.

The proposition that Joseph of Arimathea owned this island as 'Ictis' came under pressure from Roman hegemony, becomes plausible when we consider he was sometimes known as the Fisher king and could have recieved this name as owner of the island called Fish Island. Also when we consider the discrepancies of the Gospel accounts of a hewn out tomb owned by Joseph in which no one had been previously laid. the Grail stories may in fact be giving a more precise rendition of accounts of a voyage related by Rabanus. The four Gospel writers are seen to be rationalising a virgin birth with a father called Joseph who disappears from the gopel accounts while at the same time relating that Joseph (of Arimathea) has taken possesion of the body of Jesus. The proposition that after the crucifixion a rumour started, that Jesus was to be buried in a hewed out tomb owned by Joseph might explain each gospel writers conflicting evidence. Nowhere in the Gospels is a singular event given account of with such variance by the four Gospel writers. the main conflicting points are about the discovery of the body. Our proposition is that it was brought back to England to an unused tin storage vault by Joseph of Arimathea (his real father).
These pages uncover an ancient Biblical link to the Devon and Cornish peninsula through a bloodline from the first born of Judah, one of the twelve sons of Israel, called Zarah. It is from Judah’s heritage a line of Kings emanated in the South West of England known as the kings of Sarras which culminated with the famous King Arthur.
This does seem fantastic, but when the reader views the evidence related on this web site, one will find that King Arthur, Jesus and Joseph of Arimathea are waiting to be unearthed on the Island today called Burgh Island. If this is not enough for the conspiracy theorist or the skeptic. there is also the Templar treasure secreted in the tomb.

'And Did those feet, ' a book which answers Blake’s question posited in his famous anthem 'Jerusalem', traces these events. The book pulls together a wide source of detail, linking the most powerful people in Europe such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, the earliest traceable owner of the ‘Book of the Grail’, written by Melkin.

Furthermore, which seems to stretch credulity even further, a sound position may be maintained that Leonardo Da Vinci visited this island in the last three years of his life. He left clues within four paintings, which show the geographical and geological features of the Island. He also let the world know by his picture puzzle (rebus) in the Windsor Library, that he was showing us a great mystery.
Da Vinci even went as far as to say he would show where it is, in his two paintings of the Yarnwinder. The two Yarnwinder paintings known to have been by Leonardo’s hand, when merged together, show the Island of Avalon at the mouth of the river Avon below Dartmoor in geographical perspective.
Finally if the Grail quester is in any doubt as to whether a tomb exists on this island, we can see compelling evidence in the story of the Perlesvaus.
The Perlesvaux is a compilation of an early oral tradition and is derived from some of the earliest troubadours. It is from these men that the romances emanated. We can still hear the topographical detail attached to the storylines in this Grail literature that show that the Island of Avalon is synonymous with Burgh Island and the Isle of Avalon is not located at Glastonbury.

The implication and ramifications of the unearthing of this tomb will have consequences across the world. In fact this is why this ancient extract known as Melkin's prophecy which is found replicated in John of Glastonbury’s Cronica is thought to be a prophecy. Not only does Melkin leave geometrical datum which leads us to the tomb, but he unequivocally and specifically states that the discovery of the tomb will have worldwide ramifications.

This King Arthur website is not specifically about King Arthur, but includes the role of the fraudulent unearthing at Glastonbury of King Arthur’s remains. This one act has played a significant role in distorting the historical truths related by the Grail literature and our understanding of these events. This faked dis-interment of King Arthur has warped the understanding of how these events originally transpired so that the Grail stories are considered to relate no historical fact. These pages that follow uncover the relationship between the unveiling of Arthur's tomb at Glastonbury and how it has prevented the discovery of the bodies of Jesus and Joseph of Arimathea.
It is also a very strange irony that while the world looked on at the Olympic ceremony, the Island of Avalon ( as modern perception has understood) was imitated as Glastonbury tor. At the same time Blake's Anthem entitled 'Jerusalem’ was brought into popular consciousness as it was sung at the opening ceremony and seen by millions across the Globe. The Irony being that even today the question is still asked 'Did the feet of Jesus walk upon England's green and pleasant land'.

The reason the information on this site and the conclusions drawn, concerning the discovery of this tomb, have yet to be uncovered, are twofold. The first is that the proprietors of the hotel on the Island known as Burgh Island have refused any permission to uncover the entrance after many requests from various people. The conspiracy theorist would think back to the disappearance of the pages in Maihew’s Trophea and ponder. that if someone in the sixteenth century was actively intent upon obscuring the unveiling of the tomb site…….. are there still those today who wish to prevent the tomb’s opening. However, sadly, the answer is probably a lot more mundane.
The second reason and more importantly is that scholars, researchers and archaeologists have all assumed Melkin and his prophecy to be a thirteenth century fraud and are unwilling to retract pronouncements made not only about Melkin, but a whole swathe of literature falsely rationalised upon propaganda initiated at Glastonbury in the Middle ages.
However, the prophecy, which specifically speaks of Joseph of Arimathea finding his rest in the Island of Avalon….. would have to be a very well thought out fraud which shoots in the foot the supposed promulgator who designed it to benefit Glastonbury. Especially since the instructions within it, accurately located an Island so well described in the Grail Stories at which the Fisher king (otherwise known as Joseph of Arimathea) was said to be buried.
It is these Romances that actually tell the story of Joseph of Arimathea’s arrival in Britain and were written by the same man who concerns himself with the same island and personages (Jesus and Joseph) in his British prophecy . One must then have to ask. if the prophecy were invented for use to convince pilgrims of the presence of the gravesite of Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury. why then does every pertinent instructional detail, geometrically pin point an Island in Devon. Surely even the skeptics or the sedentary academic would see this as a coincidence too far especially when not one of the 104 knights or 144,000 saints have been unearthed to date.

Melkins directions are so clear once the riddle is decoded. The subject of Melkin’s puzzle is the Island of Avalon. the object is the whereabouts of Joseph of Arimathea’s tomb and the consequences of it being found.

There are so few instructional directions within this short prophecy that if it were a thirteenth century invention it would be extraordinary that every one of the clues lend additional information which geometrically locates Burgh Island. Previously, not one commentator has given a valid reason for the essential clues: ‘bifurcated line’,’ 104 miles’, 󈥭 degrees,’ and ‘sperula’ for Avebury.
If these numerical and objective clues such as a 'spherical' Avebury stone circle (circular) and 'line' (made up of St. Michael churches) did not match the 104 mile distance and the angle of 'bifurcation' was not 13 degrees. we might be able to go along with convention and assume the Grail stories were misguided in their description of the location of Avalon. This of course would make little sense, as we have explained the reasons for Glastonbury usurping the name Avalon.

Melkin hints that we look for a line to bifurcate. The most obvious line is the Michael Line in southern England. He also intones, (once the riddle is understood as Melkin intended it), when the line is found…within a circle (sperula), which is Avebury. one needs to measure 104 Nautical miles at 13 degrees to the (Michael) line and one has located Avalon.
This is where he indicates we will find Joseph and the Holy Grail and is the sole purpose of his riddle.

Many have pondered as to why or how Melkin is able to give distances in nautical miles, but he does refer to them as miles 'milibus'. The fact that he could understand this nautical mile measurement has prevented many researchers accepting the 104 as a precise measurement,(even since the riddle has been decoded) and have maintained that the number must be relevant only in the context of a 13th century fraud. How does this number of 104 or the number13 mentioned in the prophecy help a supposed fraudulent monk. Surely if the prophecy were indeed a fraud, he would have stated 'saints' not milibus. However, Melkin who was real and transferring a message to decode in the future says in a subtle way 13 degrees.
Melkin has set out his code and if the reader is not able to decode this part of the riddle, one is not going to obtain the direction of 13 degrees from the St. Michael Ley line through Montacute to Burgh Island along the Joseph line. Melkin plays on the original use of the word ‘sperulis’, from which we derived sphere, which at the beginning of the prophecy related to the stone circle of Avebury. Melkin then refers back to ‘sperulis’ by using the word “aforementioned” (the normal meaning of 'supradictis') trying to convince the reader that the two words ‘sperulis’ and ‘sperulatis’ have one and the same meaning. However his use of the word for the second time has not the same sense as in circle or sphere, but rather in its composition, being comprised of degrees. Melkin surely meant ‘sperulatis’ as a diminutive form and of the symbol for degrees i.e. 13°……. the symbol being a small circle °. Funnily enough the word supradictis is meant to be split in 'supra ad ictis' which confirms the tomb is 'up high in Ictis'
Many assume the ancients were ignorant of basic mapping and Navigational skills but this is obviously inaccurate and is attested to by the Phoenician voyages to Britain. Even Pytheas in 350 BC knew of the necessary breakdown of 60 nautical miles into 1 degree as an immutable and unchangeable law calibrated by the confines of the circumference of the globe.
This conclusion that the ancients recognised 60 nautical miles as 1 degree is easily drawn if we split the globe into the four quadrants of 90 degrees giving the 360 degrees encompassed in a circular line of Latitude or Longitude. By what other means could Pytheas measure the declination of the sun. Don’t forget there are chroniclers that attest that Melkin was not only a geometer, but an astronomer also, who was interested in Comets.


Island of Avalon, coveting the pagans in death, above all others (places) in the world for their entombment there, it is before the circle(sperula) that predicts prophesy (Avebury) and in the future will be adorned by those that give praise to the highest. The father’s pearl, (Jesus) virtuous through the new wine, the noblest of pagans, sleeps 104 miles from it (Avebury), by whom he received interment by the sea from Joseph named from Arimathea, and has taken his eternal rest there, and he lies on a line that is two forked between that and a meridian, in an angle on a coastal Tor, in a crater, that was already prepared and above is where one prays which one can go at the extremity of the verge, high up in Ictis is the place they abide to the south at thirteen degrees.

Insula auallonis auida funere paganorum, pre ceteris in orbe ad sepulturam eorum omnium sperulis propheciae vaticinantibus decorata, & in futurum ornata erit altissimum laudantibus. Abbadare, potens in Saphat, paganorum nobilissimus, cum centum et quatuor milibus domiicionem ibi accepit. Inter quos ioseph de marmore, ab Armathia nomine, cepit sompnum perpetuum Et iacet in linea bifurcata iuxta meridianum angulum oratori, cratibus praeparatis, super potentem adorandam virginem, supradictis sperulatis locum habitantibus tredecim. Habet enim secum Ioseph in sarcophago duo fassula alba & argentea, cruore prophete Jhesu & sudore perimpleta. Cum reperietur ejus sarcofagum, integrum illibatum in futuris videbitur, & erit apertum toto orbi terrarium. Ex tunc aqua, nec ros coeli insulam nobilissimam habitantibus poterit deficere. Per multum tempus ante diem Judioialem in iosaphat erunt aperta haec, & viventibus declarata.
How the prophecy has been variously translated in the past completely misunderstanding the geometric references

‘The Isle of Avalon, greedy for the death of pagans, more than all others in the world, for their entombment, decorated beyond all others by portentous spheres of prophecy, and in the future, adorned shall it be, by them that praise the most high. Abbadare, mighty in judgement, noblest of pagans, has fallen asleep there with 104,000 others (or 104 knights), among these, Joseph of Arimathea has found perpetual sleep in a marble tomb, and he lies on a two forked line, next to the southern angle of an oratory, where the wattle is prepared above the mighty maiden and in the place of the 13 spheres.
For Joseph has with him in his sarcophagus two white and silver vessels, filled with the blood and sweat of the prophet Jesus and when his sarcophagus is uncovered, it will be seen whole and undisturbed, and will be opened to the whole world.
Thenceforth those who dwell in that noble isle, will lack neither water nor the dew of heaven. For a long while before the day of judgment (ludioialem) in Josaphat, open shall these things be and declared to the living’.

If you do not wish to commit to reading the whole exposé you will find the breakdown of the instructional part of Melkin’s prophecy enlightening. confirming the geometry shown above.


We must not forget that William of Malmesbury did not know where Avalon was, but if anyone could get away with this transformation, (or even later find it convenient to promote such a position), it would be the one person who knew all the tales of the Graal. Although Henry never directly sets out to say that Glastonbury is Avalon and can be seen to recount the tales of King Arthur and the Grail Keepers faithfully from Melkin’s text and previous oral accounts from troubadours, there are certain ways of persuading others, if one does not attentively take into account, the geographical descriptions in the Branches of the High History.
After all, to title the entire work Perlesvaus or ‘through the vales’ indicates that all the stories in the Branches, take place in a certain region and revolve around geographical descriptions that apply to a kingdom specifically located by the title of the book especially with the main protagonist called 'Perceval' (through this Valley). Some commentators have thought that a French version before Henry compiled his, might have been from a mistranslation of Pellesvaus or the vales of King Pelles the sometimes fisher king.

Here the Graal at the Camelot opposite Avalon is plainly different from the Cardoil of Tintagel.
The central theme and many accessory episodes are similar to Chrètien’s Perceval and its first two continuations. However the story of the Chess board is elongated in Gautier’s continuation of Perceval, but barely mentioned in Perlesvaus, the Welsh text making no mention of the board. How this allusion to the chess board fits in,(thinking historically) as it is not just an arbitrary icon, is not clear unless in the subliminal sense the chess board originally in the book of the Grail was alluding to the valleys of Avaron as the board where Kings, Queens, Holy men(Bishops), Knights and Castles, (which all the grail literature incorporates) was somehow incorporated in some misunderstood sense as part of the story from its original potent meaning.
Chrètien’s exemption could be for many reasons, but Gautier’s embellishment does imply the Perlesvaus as primary and of equal or older than Chrètien. I think that Henry heard much of his Grail material in the court circles of France as a youngster and may have put alot of material together from memory. It would seem that in the end the Grail which may have moved from the Island at one time and was located in a chapel above ground was in the end secreted due to outside and family feuds.

He hath won the land that belonged to good King Fisherman from the evil King of Castle Mortal, that did away thence the good believe, and therefore was it that the Graal was hidden.

At what stage after Joseph's arrival these feuds appear is not certain, as all the characters seem so interchangeable along with how they are related, but the offspring of the Holy family are concerned with the guardianship of the Grail and known as Grail Keepers.
Even Dugdale's account who follows the Glastonbury tradition seems to think St. Philip is responsible for 'Despatching' Joseph. This however could be of a later tradition where Joseph leaves Sarras (Avalon) and goes off to Proselytise. Even though Dugdale thinks the Island he refers to is Glastonbury he confirms the Small Island which by the time he wrote had become synonymous with Glastonbury Tor : " About sixty-three years after the Incarnation of our Lord, St. Joseph of Arimathea, accompanied by eleven other disciples of St. Philip, was despatched by that Apostle into Britain, to introduce in the place of barbarous and bloody rites, long exercised by the bigotted and besotted druids, the meek and gentle system of Christianity. They succeeded in obtaining from Arviragus, the British king, permission to settle in a small island………”

William of Malmesbury also tells us how Joseph of Arimathea was sent over by St. Philip, and how a king of Britain, whom he does not name, gave Joseph and his companions the island called Ynyswitryn, where, by admonition of the Archangel Gabriel appearing to him in a vision, he built a chapel which he dedicated to the Virgin. This Island originally had been called Sarras or Avalon. William, however, makes no allusion to the Graal, Josephes, Mordrains, and Sarras or to Lancelot or Gawain, or even to the prophecy of Melkin. Obviously (as we have discussed previously), he thinks any other tradition about Joseph bringing with him holy relics i.e the Graal is a frivolous invention and basically just associates the old church with Joseph but omits to inform us of whole legend of Joseph. It is mainly Williams omission of a reference to Melkin's prophecy on which most scholars base their assumption that it must be of a later invention. This presumption of course has been added to with such trite pronouncements upon 'Abbadare', 'saphat' and the Baybars having an eastern connection. when the prophecy itself is so obviously concerned with its subject. which is clearly the Island of Avalon. How modern scholarship has made this contrived drivel stick and supposedly prove that Melkin and his prophecy was of a later invention is a curious mirroring of the earlier contrivances carried out by Glastonbury chroniclers. This is especially true when we consider Glastonbury chroniclers themselves attesting he was a geometer and his Geometry locates an island with stunning geometrical precision. We will assess in a moment the source of this misdirection by modern scholarship which is mainly derived from a publication known as ' Melkin the Bard and Esoteric tradition at Glastonbury Abbey' in the Downside review.

‘Now put me into that barge,’ seyde the kynge.
And so he ded sofftely, and there resceyved hym three ladyes
with grete mournyng. And so they sette hem downe, and in one
of their lappis kyng Arthure layde hys hede. And then the quene seyde,
“A, my dere brothir! Why have ye taryed so longe frome me?
Alas, thys wounde on youre hede hath caught overmuch coulde!"
And anone they rowed fromward the londe, and sir Bedyvere
behylde all tho ladyes go frowarde hym. Than sir Bedwere cryed
and seyde,
“A, my lorde Arthur, what shall becom of me, now ye go frome
me and leve me here alone amonge myne enemyes?”
“Comforte thyselff,” seyde the kynge, “and do as well as thou
mayste, for in me ys no truste for to truste in. For I must into the
vale of Avylyon to hele me of my grevous wounde. And if thou
here nevermore of me, pray for my soule!”
But ever the quene and ladyes wepte and shryked, that hit was
pité to hyre. And as sone as sir Bedwere had loste the
syght of the barge he wepte and wayled, and so toke the foreste
and wente all that nyght.
(Malory, Vinaver edition p. 716).

It is probably due to accounts that had the Queen living at the advent of Arthur's death, that we get the whole 'Second wife' scenario from Glastonbury, as earlier material had the king buried alonside Guinevere who had died previously.


Archaeological evidence

So how can archaeology shed light on the question of Glastonbury’s origins? Research led by the University of Reading has reassessed the full archive of excavations that took place at Glastonbury Abbey throughout the 20th century.

The excavation records confirm that the site of Glastonbury Abbey was occupied before the foundation of the Anglo-Saxon monastery around AD 700. Near the site of the medieval Lady Chapel, there were traces of a timber hall within the bounds of the early monastic cemetery. A roughly trodden floor contained fragments of late Roman amphorae imported from the eastern Mediterranean, dating back to about 450–550AD.

Plan of the post Roman timber structure and associated late Roman amphorae. Liz Gardner , Author provided

A radiocarbon date pinpoints the demolition of the timber building to the eighth or ninth century. This suggests that the building was in use for a long period – extending from the pre-Saxon phase of the site at around 500AD and into the period of the Saxon monastery – potentially up to 300 years.

This new archaeological evidence does not prove the presence of an early church – or support a connection with Joseph of Arimathea. But it does confirm that the Anglo-Saxon monastery was preceded by a high status settlement dating back to the fifth or sixth century – one with elite trading connections to the eastern Mediterranean. It may also suggest that the Saxon monastery carefully “curated” the timber building – in other words, preserved it for future generations, perhaps because it held special religious or ancestral significance for the monks.


Tuesday, August 21, 2012

This Blog describes how this huge display of geometrical precision across the British landscape was understood and known to exist as late as late the 1300’s. Also, the presence of the St. Michael Ley line was known about by Melkin in the sixth century. An array of churches were built upon this ancient system to point out to posterity the location of the tomb of Jesus by the Templars and also to mark the spot where they had buried their treasure.

Figure showing the Bifurcation point or the two forked line of Melkin’s prophecy which bisects inside the Avebury stone circle. The line which Melkin has sent us to find is 104 nautical miles away from Avebury and runs right through St. Michael’s hill just as Father William Good had instructed us as to where Joseph of Arimathea was ‘carefully hidden’. The angle at which the bifurcation toward mons-acutus or Montacute bisects the Saint Michael ley line is 13 degress as Melkin had let us know.

This secret location is called the Island of Avalon and the same monk Melkin visited this island which is now called Burgh Island, at the death of Britain’s famous King Arthur. Here he found arcane information from the Temple in Jerusalem that was brought to England by Joseph of Arimathea. This information with an account of the first Christians arrival with Mary Magdalene was written in a book composed by Melkin giving account of the time from the arrival of these early Christians, up until the time of King Arthur. This book became known as 'The Grail book', that found its way to France when Melkin established an early hermitage on Mont- St -Michel in Normandy. This book then through the troubadour family of the counts of Pitou and Aquitaine gave rise to the wide array of Grail stories. A close family connection in the person of Henry Blois or as many knew him as Monseigneur Blois became the Master Blehis that was Abbot of Glastonbury and was the first to expound from the French Grail literature and know of the English tradition that existed at Glastonbury. It was Henry of Blois that also left the clue at Glastonbury regarding the burial site of Joseph of Arimathea. This came into the possesion of Father William Good and it confirms Melkin's directions to the Island of Avalon or the Island of Sarras of the Grail romances.

Island of Avalon, coveting the pagans in death, above all others (places) in the world for their entombment there, it is honoured by the circle of portentous prophesy (Avebury) and in the future will be adorned by those that give praise to the highest. The father’s pearl, (Jesus) mighty in judgement (or virtuous through new wine), the noblest of pagans, sleeps 104 miles from it (Avebury), by whom he recieved interment by the sea from Joseph named from Arimathea, and has taken his eternal rest there, and he lies on a line that is two forked between that and a meridian, in an angle on a coastal Tor, in a crater, that was already prepared, (with powers from on high, as from an adorable maiden, up high in Ictis is the tomb and those dwelling there are at 13 degrees.) above which one can go at the extremity of the verge, high up in Ictis to the place they abide to the south at thirteen degrees.


It is one of the objectives of this enquiry to elucidate to the reader the interconnectedness of what is potentially part of a huge ancient functioning system and its relevance in the present era. Who was it in the modern era and which organised body realised that some planned out design is still extant on the British landscape? Did the later designers of the 1300s who built on top of the very locations on which ancient man had built his design, know of its function and have knowledge of its effect upon the inhabitants of Britain?

The quantities mentioned and the heavy transport loads involved from Dartmoor as far as the Isle of Wight over 100 miles away should exclude any further mention being given as a credible location for Ictis even given the transport risks of such a valuable commodity. The problem with all the previous possible candidates for the Island of Ictis is that scholars or researchers have always used information selectively to support their own views on the location. It is known that tin mining had first started in between the Erm and Avon estuary in the early British Bronze Age. There is ample archaeological evidence to show that tin streaming existed high up on the moors behind South Brent at Shipley Bridge on the Avon, at least to 1600BC and probably beyond.

From seaward, the approach to the river mouth looks like a ‘lee shore’ which no sailor would want to approach unless he had prior knowledge of the passage between the waves leading to a haven behind the spit. From a seaward perspective, a passing vessel would only see the cliffs in the background and never assume the tidal river turned tightly to starboard behind Bantham dunes. Due to the fact that the entrance is not wide, the entrance is disguised from seaward as a breaking shoreline at nearly all states of the tide as shown in figure 12, but a clear entrance is visible in the photograph viewed from the top of the Island of Ictis.

Gildas circa.540 AD, the earliest source for the arrival of Jesus’s message in Britain attests, that Christianity first reached Britain when Tiberius was Emperor around 37AD. The Glastonbury tradition gives Joseph building the first church circa 67AD and both Tertullian 200 AD and Eusebius 280 AD, each confirm an early date for the first Christian message reaching Britain. Tertullian states that:
“For in whom else have the people of the world trusted, except in Christ who has already come. How then the varieties of Gentiles and the many borders of the Moors, all the boundaries of the Spaniards, and the various nations of the Gauls, and the regions of the Britons, inaccessible to the Romans, but subdued by the true Christ”.

Whether or not Arthur was widely acknowledged to be buried in the Isle of Avalon, prior to the proliferation of the Grail material is unknown but seems probable based upon the assumption that it was Melkin who is responsible for the source from which Geoffrey of Monmouth proclaims Athur’s burial place.

We cannot be sure of the name of that Island at that date when Melkin wrote, but as will become clear that Melkin knew it was the old Ictis of the Greek and Latin chroniclers. He would hardly have created a puzzle naming the Island of Avallonis as the island in which Joseph and Arthur were buried, if the name of that Island had that particular appellation at that time. This would negate the purport of the riddle and for this reason we can assume that it was Melkin who is responsible for the name Avalon.

Arthur is said, as we have mentioned, to be buried in the Isle of Avalon and that someday he would return to his people. This brief prophetic suggestion was probably caused by the fact that no-one knew what happened to him or where he had been taken and stems from rumour created in the interim before Arthur was declared to be buried in Avalon by Melkin. This rumour still existed to the time when Thomas Malory tells us that 'some men say in many parts of England that King Arthur is not dead, but had by the will of our Lord Jesus into another place, and men say that he shall come again, and shall win the Holy Crosse.'

The fact that a Grail source, originating supposedly in France and Melkin’s Prophecy from Britain, both confer on Avalon some miraculous status, would appear to suggest that there is a common understanding between these works. What exactly does it mean that Arthur would return to his people except that he was lost to them and no-one knew where his gravesite really was. When Joseph of Arimathea is uncovered, it will be discovered that Arthur is buried with him………then he will be returned to his people, but only one man could know of his whereabouts, the same person who says who else is buried also in the Island of Avalon, from having seen the tin vault and what it contained.

From when the next Abbot Chinnock arrived on the scene in 1375 until 1420, big changes happened at Glastonbury. In 1382 Chinnock restored the ruined chapel in the cemetery and re-dedicated it to St. Michael and St Joseph of Arimathea, also adorning the Abbey with excerpts from John of Glastonbury's Cronica in the main church encouraging those who came into the Abbey to read of the legend. Anything that promoted the Abbey by associating it still further with Joseph of Arimathea was acceptable. The end result of all this self-promotion of Glastonbury Abbey was at last, to be independent of the See of Wells, and through their associations with the illustrious Arthur and Joseph, the Abbey continued to gain primacy, wealth, and pilgrims.

Many have thought that the originator of the French material is referred to in the "Elucidation", prefixed to the rhymed version of "Percival le Gallois" under the name of "Master Blihis" and this pseudonym seems to refer to Henry de Blois who in French circles would have been known as Monseigneur Blois, but in British circles as Henry of Blois (1101�). He was often known as Henry of Winchester and was Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey from 1126, and Bishop of Winchester from 1129 to his death.

The first thing to notice is that the genealogy starts with Joseph’s Nephew and this raises the question of what relation was Helians to Jesus

Showing the Island of Avalon described in the Perlesvaus.


Showing How the Grail Stories Confirm The Location of Burgh Island as Avalon

In the Dark Ages, after the death of King Arthur, a monk known as Melkin, left for posterity a riddle or prophecy which exposed the burial site of Joseph of Arimathea. This location, known as the Island of Avalon, has long been thought to exist near Glastonbury abbey. Glastonbury is also thought to have been the place where King Arthur's tomb was found. However, in this exposé, we will show the location of the yet unearthed tomb of King Arthur. Arthur's resting place is also on the same island where Joseph of Arimathea's sepulchre still lies undiscovered.

The Island of Avalon has been associated with the tor at Glastonbury because the monks at the medieval abbey exaggerated the previous association with Joseph of Arimathea to attract pilgrims. The myth that Glastonbury tor is somehow connected or even synonymous with the Island of Avalon is probably down to a man called Henry Blois, better known as Master Blihis, who was an abbot at Glastonbury abbey.
The author has deciphered the meaning behind the riddle known as Melkin's prophecy, upon which the mythical status of Glastonbury is founded. It is due to the fragment of Melkin's prophecy that Glastonbury polemicists, recognizing its antiquity, desperately contrived an association with Joseph of Arimathea's burial site and that of King Arthur.
This was possible due to everyone's ignorance in the middle ages of the location of Avalon. The subtle translocation of the isle of Avalon can be witnessed in the evolving interpolation of the prophecy by Glastonbury chroniclers keen to promote the connection with the uncle of Jesus. The 'Vaus d'Avaron' of French Grail literature is described in the story line in some Grail romances as pertaining to a region of valleys south of Dartmoor and the island of Avalon fits the description of Burgh Island. The genuine historical Avalon had beaches it was tidal and had ships that visited it. unlike Glastonbury or its environs.

The monks riddle which he left for posterity, when deciphered, clearly indicates with pinpoint geometrical accuracy, the whereabouts of the resting place of King Arthur and Joseph of Arimathea in the Island of Avalon. This is evidently not at Glastonbury.
The strange thing is that the geometric puzzle left by Melkin describes directions that are derived from the Saint Michael line of churches which runs across southern England.

For the skeptic, the fact that a 'bifurcated line' mentioned in Melkin's prophecy (Joseph lies on a bifurcated line), is the Saint Michael line. causes many to assume there could be no link between the two. Most researchers have assumed the directions are local and relative to the old church at Glastonbury Abbey. This is all part of the interpolation purposely propagated by the Glastonbury establishment's chroniclers, in an attempt to be accounted the resting place of such an illustrious person.
The churches and chapels, built upon an ancient line of earthworks that demarcate the St. Michael line has been put there by design. When interlinked with other St. Michael churches (not on the Michael line), these Michaeline chapels act as markers on a map, leading to the lost island of Avalon. They clearly show that the chapels have be built as a devise to coincide with the precise instructional data provided by the prophecy of Melkin.

This site will show how this huge display of geometrical precision across the British landscape was understood and known to exist as late as late the 1300’s.
The accuracy of the geometry confirms that in antiquity, the presence of the St. Michael line was known about by Melkin in the sixth century. long before the churches and chapels dedicated to the prince of the heavenly host were built. The array of churches dedicated to the archangel were built upon this ancient line of earthworks to point out to posterity the location of the tomb of Jesus by the ‘illuminati’ of the Templar order with the dual intent. to mark the spot where they buried their treasure.

This hitherto hidden location is called the Island of Avalon and Melkin visited this island nowadays is known as Burgh Island. It becomes apparent that Melkin was present at the death of Britain’s famous King Arthur and he states who and what he saw in the Tomb.
In the tomb, Melkin found arcane information from the Temple in Jerusalem which had been brought to England by Joseph of Arimathea. This information, with an account of the Holy Family's arrival with Mary Magdalene, was written in a book composed by Melkin. This book gave account of the time from the arrival of these early Christians through a bloodline of 'Grail Keepers'. up until the time of King Arthur.
The book became known as 'The Grail book', which found its way to France, Evidence points to Melkin who may well have established an early hermitage on Mont-Saint-Michel in Normandy.
'The book of the Grail', through the troubadour family of the counts of Pitou and Aquitaine, gave rise to the wide array of Grail stories propagated through the medieval courts of France. A close family connection to Eleanor of Aquitaine in the person of Henry Blois (or as many knew him 'Monseigneur Blois'), became the 'Master Blohis' who was Abbot of Glastonbury. He was the first to expound from the French Grail literature by compiling the 'Perlesvaus', but he also was aware of the English traditions of the prophecy of Melkin which existed at Glastonbury and was aware of other manuscripts written by Melkin that became the source of Welsh Arthurian literature.
Henry of Blois however never knew the location of Avalon, but it was him who left the clue regarding Joseph of Arimathea being 'carefully hidden' at Montacute. This essential confirmational clue, not mentioned in the original prophecy, eventually came into the possession of Father William Good. It confirms Melkin's directions to the Island of Avalon and also endorses the proposition that the Michaeline chapels were constructed upon an older network of prominent earth mounds.
Unfortunately many researchers have denied the existence of alignment in the design of these ancient earthworks which became known as Ley lines. The mention of a Ley line for the majority of researchers has led to the refusal to accept the obvious parallels with the Michaeline structures and the denial of any association with the precision of Melkin's geometry. In fact some professed archaeologists refuse the existence of the ancient alignment of Avebury, Glastonbury tor, Burrow Mump and the Hurlers (to give but a few), simply because it is called a 'Ley line' and they don't understand the reasons behind the alignment.

‘And did those feet’, a book by Michael Goldsworthy, clearly shows that the body of Jesus is in fact buried with Joseph of Arimathea within this newly determined Avalon island in Devon. The Island used to be known as the fabled Island of Ictis by classical Greek and Latin chroniclers. However the Island contains within it an ancient tin vault. This hewn out tin storage deposit, which was used by the 'emporium' tin trading island of Ictis. became the tomb for Jesus, Joseph and a collection of British nobles from antiquity . It had originally been used to store tin ingots when the Island of Ictis monopolised the trade of tin through the Phoenicians to the ancient world.

The confirmation of the whereabouts of this tomb is given by precise geometrical instructions upon the British landscape. These directions left in the obtuse Latin puzzle by the monk Melkin, (once deciphered), lead us to the grave site. The islands position is verified by the clue given to the Jesuit priest, Father Good, who lived in the sixteenth century. He deposited this vital corroborative clue concerning the sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea in the English college in Rome.
Father Good however, was unaware of the significance of the clue he was given concerning how Joseph of Arimathea was 'Carefully hidden' in Montacute. However, someone else knew of the island's location and how its location was determined by these St. Michael dedicated sites. Since the time that the Templars visited the island with three treasure ships, to bury their treasure some one or some organisation has tried to hide the evidence that was rigourously guarded and passed to posterity by William Good. The reason for this seems to be that should we not have decoded Melkin's instructions. the island might have been discovered sooner by the geometry which pertains to the Michaeline structures alone i.e both Burgh Island and Montecute both being prominent hill top features like the other St. Michael sites.
The three copies of 'Maihew's Trophea' have all had this information concerning Montacute removed. Were it not for a copy that existed in a private collection. the chapel that existed atop St. Michael's hill would not have been known to act as a corroborative marker within the array of Michaeline chapels. These act as geometric points, that, when joined up in straight lines, confirm the angle and measurement that points to the Island and the tomb indicated by Melkin as the burial Island of Joseph of Arimathea.

The Templars in the middle ages were aware of the location of this tomb and deposited their treasure in the same sepulchre on Christmas day 1307. They were also aware of the instructional data within Melkin's prophecy. Thus the Templars were responsible for re-defining the line that Melkin had referred to by the re-dedication of church sites.
The line of St. Michael churches built upon an ancient alignment that includes Glastonbury was probably instigated by the Megalithic builders of Avebury. What function this line had is at the moment unanswered, but the fact that St. Michael's hill at Montacute is similar to both the prominent hilltop sites of Glastonbury and Burrow Mump would indicate by its subsequent dedication to St.Michael that it, (before Melkin's geometry was known), could have been part of this alignment from the early Megalith culture of Britain.

However, the Templars removed one item from the old hewn out vault within the island, which, because science has been unable to explain its formation. has been classed as a fake. This artifact mentioned in the Gospels and throughout Grail literature has now become known as the Turin Shroud.

The Turin Shroud is described perfectly in Melkin's Latin puzzle once the solution is unravelled.
'Habet enim secum Ioseph in sarcophago duo fassula alba & argentea, cruore prophete Jhesu & sudore perimpleta': Joseph has with him in the sarcophagus a doubled white swaddling cloth covered with the blood and sweat of the prophet Jesus that was folded around him.

It must not be forgotten by the pedant that Melkin had purposely constructed an obtuse riddle which needed to be unraveled. It is for this reason the Glastonbury establishment found it easy to convince the gullible that the old church at the abbey and some superfluous line (that was supposedly indicated by a bronze plaque on a pillar), was relevant to the resting place of Joseph.
This fairly precise description of the shroud was given six hundred years before the shroud supposedly first appeared at Lirey in France. This was just fifty years after the Templar's visit to Burgh Island. so how could it be a fake. This artifact, described to exist in the tomb with Joseph can be derived from Melkin’s description as 'duo fassula.' This was due to misinterpretation encouraged at Glastonbury and so the arbitrary understanding of two jugs, later became synonymous with the Holy Grail.
This misconception occurred mostly by ignorance of the intended meaning of the puzzle. Thus the two vessels which were misunderstood to contain the blood and sweat of Jesus, became synonymous with the object of the Holy Grail. This misleading interpretation has transpired by the subtle twists of the prophecy's interpretation at Glastonbury by polemicists and of course the intended subtlety of Melkin. designing his prophecy as a riddle to be decoded.
The reader will learn on this site, that the Holy Grail is in fact something inestimably more valuable and these pages set out to explain what the Grail is and how the Grail stories came about.

The body of Jesus, around which the Turin Shroud was once wrapped, remained in the tin vault, steeped in Cedar oil. It is by being submerged in the oil that the image on the Turin Shroud was formed over a period of six hundred years. The image formation was caused by the interaction of Aneorobic detritus and Brownian motion within the oil as the shroud enveloped the body of Jesus.
Judging by Melkin’s description of the shroud and the fact that the whole cloth is covered with a yellow varnish like encrustation, left over from the evaporated oil, the shroud was most probably removed from the body around 5- 600AD by Melkin. The dried out cloth which had managed to transfer the faintest facial imprint to the back side image as it dried….. was then later removed from the Isle of Avalon by the Templars.
The Turin Shroud was essentially formed within what became known as the Grail Arc which is the tin lined coffin of Jesus. This is the box Joseph of Arimathea used to transport the body of Jesus to England that was filled with embalming fluid and from which it is said the ancient British kings were anointed. Both the shroud and the coffin are mentioned in the Grail Stories in numerous subliminal references with many references to the sweet smelling Cedar oil. This Grail ark or coffin brought to England by Joseph was not (for obvious reasons) mentioned specifically in the Grail romances, but is subliminally indicated as the tomb of an unidentified person. Eventually Joseph was laid to rest within the same Sepulchre.

The reason this Island which used to be called Ictis was chosen to house what is the holiest relic of all. is because it was not widely known about in the ancient world and its location was kept secret from the Romans. It was rumoured to exist through a report by one of the first Greek explorers to Britain named Pytheas.
Devon and Cornwall have a history in the tin industry and it was from this island that tin was traded with Joseph of Arimathea. who, Cornish tradition has always maintained, was a tin merchant and was accompanied on his trading missions by Jesus.
Diodorus Siculus gives us a clear description of this same island which Pytheas had named Ictis or 'Fish Island' due to the vast quantities of pilchards caught off the Island. Through Pytheas’ account of what he encountered at the tin trading island, Diodorus relates that ‘large quantities of tin’ were taken over to the island in carts across the sand bar at low tide.

The proposition that Joseph of Arimathea owned this island as 'Ictis' came under pressure from Roman hegemony, becomes plausible when we consider he was sometimes known as the Fisher king and could have recieved this name as owner of the island called Fish Island. Also when we consider the discrepancies of the Gospel accounts of a hewn out tomb owned by Joseph in which no one had been previously laid. the Grail stories may in fact be giving a more precise rendition of accounts of a voyage related by Rabanus. The four Gospel writers are seen to be rationalising a virgin birth with a father called Joseph who disappears from the gopel accounts while at the same time relating that Joseph (of Arimathea) has taken possesion of the body of Jesus. The proposition that after the crucifixion a rumour started, that Jesus was to be buried in a hewed out tomb owned by Joseph might explain each gospel writers conflicting evidence. Nowhere in the Gospels is a singular event given account of with such variance by the four Gospel writers. the main conflicting points are about the discovery of the body. Our proposition is that it was brought back to England to an unused tin storage vault by Joseph of Arimathea (his real father).
These pages uncover an ancient Biblical link to the Devon and Cornish peninsula through a bloodline from the first born of Judah, one of the twelve sons of Israel, called Zarah. It is from Judah’s heritage a line of Kings emanated in the South West of England known as the kings of Sarras which culminated with the famous King Arthur.
This does seem fantastic, but when the reader views the evidence related on this web site, one will find that King Arthur, Jesus and Joseph of Arimathea are waiting to be unearthed on the Island today called Burgh Island. If this is not enough for the conspiracy theorist or the skeptic. there is also the Templar treasure secreted in the tomb.

'And Did those feet, ' a book which answers Blake’s question posited in his famous anthem 'Jerusalem', traces these events. The book pulls together a wide source of detail, linking the most powerful people in Europe such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, the earliest traceable owner of the ‘Book of the Grail’, written by Melkin.

Furthermore, which seems to stretch credulity even further, a sound position may be maintained that Leonardo Da Vinci visited this island in the last three years of his life. He left clues within four paintings, which show the geographical and geological features of the Island. He also let the world know by his picture puzzle (rebus) in the Windsor Library, that he was showing us a great mystery.
Da Vinci even went as far as to say he would show where it is, in his two paintings of the Yarnwinder. The two Yarnwinder paintings known to have been by Leonardo’s hand, when merged together, show the Island of Avalon at the mouth of the river Avon below Dartmoor in geographical perspective.
Finally if the Grail quester is in any doubt as to whether a tomb exists on this island, we can see compelling evidence in the story of the Perlesvaus.
The Perlesvaux is a compilation of an early oral tradition and is derived from some of the earliest troubadours. It is from these men that the romances emanated. We can still hear the topographical detail attached to the storylines in this Grail literature that show that the Island of Avalon is synonymous with Burgh Island and the Isle of Avalon is not located at Glastonbury.

The implication and ramifications of the unearthing of this tomb will have consequences across the world. In fact this is why this ancient extract known as Melkin's prophecy which is found replicated in John of Glastonbury’s Cronica is thought to be a prophecy. Not only does Melkin leave geometrical datum which leads us to the tomb, but he unequivocally and specifically states that the discovery of the tomb will have worldwide ramifications.

This King Arthur website is not specifically about King Arthur, but includes the role of the fraudulent unearthing at Glastonbury of King Arthur’s remains. This one act has played a significant role in distorting the historical truths related by the Grail literature and our understanding of these events. This faked dis-interment of King Arthur has warped the understanding of how these events originally transpired so that the Grail stories are considered to relate no historical fact. These pages that follow uncover the relationship between the unveiling of Arthur's tomb at Glastonbury and how it has prevented the discovery of the bodies of Jesus and Joseph of Arimathea.
It is also a very strange irony that while the world looked on at the Olympic ceremony, the Island of Avalon ( as modern perception has understood) was imitated as Glastonbury tor. At the same time Blake's Anthem entitled 'Jerusalem’ was brought into popular consciousness as it was sung at the opening ceremony and seen by millions across the Globe. The Irony being that even today the question is still asked 'Did the feet of Jesus walk upon England's green and pleasant land'.

The reason the information on this site and the conclusions drawn, concerning the discovery of this tomb, have yet to be uncovered, are twofold. The first is that the proprietors of the hotel on the Island known as Burgh Island have refused any permission to uncover the entrance after many requests from various people. The conspiracy theorist would think back to the disappearance of the pages in Maihew’s Trophea and ponder. that if someone in the sixteenth century was actively intent upon obscuring the unveiling of the tomb site…….. are there still those today who wish to prevent the tomb’s opening. However, sadly, the answer is probably a lot more mundane.
The second reason and more importantly is that scholars, researchers and archaeologists have all assumed Melkin and his prophecy to be a thirteenth century fraud and are unwilling to retract pronouncements made not only about Melkin, but a whole swathe of literature falsely rationalised upon propaganda initiated at Glastonbury in the Middle ages.
However, the prophecy, which specifically speaks of Joseph of Arimathea finding his rest in the Island of Avalon….. would have to be a very well thought out fraud which shoots in the foot the supposed promulgator who designed it to benefit Glastonbury. Especially since the instructions within it, accurately located an Island so well described in the Grail Stories at which the Fisher king (otherwise known as Joseph of Arimathea) was said to be buried.
It is these Romances that actually tell the story of Joseph of Arimathea’s arrival in Britain and were written by the same man who concerns himself with the same island and personages (Jesus and Joseph) in his British prophecy . One must then have to ask. if the prophecy were invented for use to convince pilgrims of the presence of the gravesite of Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury. why then does every pertinent instructional detail, geometrically pin point an Island in Devon. Surely even the skeptics or the sedentary academic would see this as a coincidence too far especially when not one of the 104 knights or 144,000 saints have been unearthed to date.

Melkins directions are so clear once the riddle is decoded. The subject of Melkin’s puzzle is the Island of Avalon. the object is the whereabouts of Joseph of Arimathea’s tomb and the consequences of it being found.

There are so few instructional directions within this short prophecy that if it were a thirteenth century invention it would be extraordinary that every one of the clues lend additional information which geometrically locates Burgh Island. Previously, not one commentator has given a valid reason for the essential clues: ‘bifurcated line’,’ 104 miles’, 󈥭 degrees,’ and ‘sperula’ for Avebury.
If these numerical and objective clues such as a 'spherical' Avebury stone circle (circular) and 'line' (made up of St. Michael churches) did not match the 104 mile distance and the angle of 'bifurcation' was not 13 degrees. we might be able to go along with convention and assume the Grail stories were misguided in their description of the location of Avalon. This of course would make little sense, as we have explained the reasons for Glastonbury usurping the name Avalon.

Melkin hints that we look for a line to bifurcate. The most obvious line is the Michael Line in southern England. He also intones, (once the riddle is understood as Melkin intended it), when the line is found…within a circle (sperula), which is Avebury. one needs to measure 104 Nautical miles at 13 degrees to the (Michael) line and one has located Avalon.
This is where he indicates we will find Joseph and the Holy Grail and is the sole purpose of his riddle.

Many have pondered as to why or how Melkin is able to give distances in nautical miles, but he does refer to them as miles 'milibus'. The fact that he could understand this nautical mile measurement has prevented many researchers accepting the 104 as a precise measurement,(even since the riddle has been decoded) and have maintained that the number must be relevant only in the context of a 13th century fraud. How does this number of 104 or the number13 mentioned in the prophecy help a supposed fraudulent monk. Surely if the prophecy were indeed a fraud, he would have stated 'saints' not milibus. However, Melkin who was real and transferring a message to decode in the future says in a subtle way 13 degrees.
Melkin has set out his code and if the reader is not able to decode this part of the riddle, one is not going to obtain the direction of 13 degrees from the St. Michael Ley line through Montacute to Burgh Island along the Joseph line. Melkin plays on the original use of the word ‘sperulis’, from which we derived sphere, which at the beginning of the prophecy related to the stone circle of Avebury. Melkin then refers back to ‘sperulis’ by using the word “aforementioned” (the normal meaning of 'supradictis') trying to convince the reader that the two words ‘sperulis’ and ‘sperulatis’ have one and the same meaning. However his use of the word for the second time has not the same sense as in circle or sphere, but rather in its composition, being comprised of degrees. Melkin surely meant ‘sperulatis’ as a diminutive form and of the symbol for degrees i.e. 13°……. the symbol being a small circle °. Funnily enough the word supradictis is meant to be split in 'supra ad ictis' which confirms the tomb is 'up high in Ictis'
Many assume the ancients were ignorant of basic mapping and Navigational skills but this is obviously inaccurate and is attested to by the Phoenician voyages to Britain. Even Pytheas in 350 BC knew of the necessary breakdown of 60 nautical miles into 1 degree as an immutable and unchangeable law calibrated by the confines of the circumference of the globe.
This conclusion that the ancients recognised 60 nautical miles as 1 degree is easily drawn if we split the globe into the four quadrants of 90 degrees giving the 360 degrees encompassed in a circular line of Latitude or Longitude. By what other means could Pytheas measure the declination of the sun. Don’t forget there are chroniclers that attest that Melkin was not only a geometer, but an astronomer also, who was interested in Comets.


Island of Avalon, coveting the pagans in death, above all others (places) in the world for their entombment there, it is before the circle(sperula) that predicts prophesy (Avebury) and in the future will be adorned by those that give praise to the highest. The father’s pearl, (Jesus) virtuous through the new wine, the noblest of pagans, sleeps 104 miles from it (Avebury), by whom he received interment by the sea from Joseph named from Arimathea, and has taken his eternal rest there, and he lies on a line that is two forked between that and a meridian, in an angle on a coastal Tor, in a crater, that was already prepared and above is where one prays which one can go at the extremity of the verge, high up in Ictis is the place they abide to the south at thirteen degrees.

Insula auallonis auida funere paganorum, pre ceteris in orbe ad sepulturam eorum omnium sperulis propheciae vaticinantibus decorata, & in futurum ornata erit altissimum laudantibus. Abbadare, potens in Saphat, paganorum nobilissimus, cum centum et quatuor milibus domiicionem ibi accepit. Inter quos ioseph de marmore, ab Armathia nomine, cepit sompnum perpetuum Et iacet in linea bifurcata iuxta meridianum angulum oratori, cratibus praeparatis, super potentem adorandam virginem, supradictis sperulatis locum habitantibus tredecim. Habet enim secum Ioseph in sarcophago duo fassula alba & argentea, cruore prophete Jhesu & sudore perimpleta. Cum reperietur ejus sarcofagum, integrum illibatum in futuris videbitur, & erit apertum toto orbi terrarium. Ex tunc aqua, nec ros coeli insulam nobilissimam habitantibus poterit deficere. Per multum tempus ante diem Judioialem in iosaphat erunt aperta haec, & viventibus declarata.
How the prophecy has been variously translated in the past completely misunderstanding the geometric references

‘The Isle of Avalon, greedy for the death of pagans, more than all others in the world, for their entombment, decorated beyond all others by portentous spheres of prophecy, and in the future, adorned shall it be, by them that praise the most high. Abbadare, mighty in judgement, noblest of pagans, has fallen asleep there with 104,000 others (or 104 knights), among these, Joseph of Arimathea has found perpetual sleep in a marble tomb, and he lies on a two forked line, next to the southern angle of an oratory, where the wattle is prepared above the mighty maiden and in the place of the 13 spheres.
For Joseph has with him in his sarcophagus two white and silver vessels, filled with the blood and sweat of the prophet Jesus and when his sarcophagus is uncovered, it will be seen whole and undisturbed, and will be opened to the whole world.
Thenceforth those who dwell in that noble isle, will lack neither water nor the dew of heaven. For a long while before the day of judgment (ludioialem) in Josaphat, open shall these things be and declared to the living’.

If you do not wish to commit to reading the whole exposé you will find the breakdown of the instructional part of Melkin’s prophecy enlightening. confirming the geometry shown above.


We must not forget that William of Malmesbury did not know where Avalon was, but if anyone could get away with this transformation, (or even later find it convenient to promote such a position), it would be the one person who knew all the tales of the Graal. Although Henry never directly sets out to say that Glastonbury is Avalon and can be seen to recount the tales of King Arthur and the Grail Keepers faithfully from Melkin’s text and previous oral accounts from troubadours, there are certain ways of persuading others, if one does not attentively take into account, the geographical descriptions in the Branches of the High History.
After all, to title the entire work Perlesvaus or ‘through the vales’ indicates that all the stories in the Branches, take place in a certain region and revolve around geographical descriptions that apply to a kingdom specifically located by the title of the book especially with the main protagonist called 'Perceval' (through this Valley). Some commentators have thought that a French version before Henry compiled his, might have been from a mistranslation of Pellesvaus or the vales of King Pelles the sometimes fisher king.

Here the Graal at the Camelot opposite Avalon is plainly different from the Cardoil of Tintagel.
The central theme and many accessory episodes are similar to Chrètien’s Perceval and its first two continuations. However the story of the Chess board is elongated in Gautier’s continuation of Perceval, but barely mentioned in Perlesvaus, the Welsh text making no mention of the board. How this allusion to the chess board fits in,(thinking historically) as it is not just an arbitrary icon, is not clear unless in the subliminal sense the chess board originally in the book of the Grail was alluding to the valleys of Avaron as the board where Kings, Queens, Holy men(Bishops), Knights and Castles, (which all the grail literature incorporates) was somehow incorporated in some misunderstood sense as part of the story from its original potent meaning.
Chrètien’s exemption could be for many reasons, but Gautier’s embellishment does imply the Perlesvaus as primary and of equal or older than Chrètien. I think that Henry heard much of his Grail material in the court circles of France as a youngster and may have put alot of material together from memory. It would seem that in the end the Grail which may have moved from the Island at one time and was located in a chapel above ground was in the end secreted due to outside and family feuds.

He hath won the land that belonged to good King Fisherman from the evil King of Castle Mortal, that did away thence the good believe, and therefore was it that the Graal was hidden.

At what stage after Joseph's arrival these feuds appear is not certain, as all the characters seem so interchangeable along with how they are related, but the offspring of the Holy family are concerned with the guardianship of the Grail and known as Grail Keepers.
Even Dugdale's account who follows the Glastonbury tradition seems to think St. Philip is responsible for 'Despatching' Joseph. This however could be of a later tradition where Joseph leaves Sarras (Avalon) and goes off to Proselytise. Even though Dugdale thinks the Island he refers to is Glastonbury he confirms the Small Island which by the time he wrote had become synonymous with Glastonbury Tor : " About sixty-three years after the Incarnation of our Lord, St. Joseph of Arimathea, accompanied by eleven other disciples of St. Philip, was despatched by that Apostle into Britain, to introduce in the place of barbarous and bloody rites, long exercised by the bigotted and besotted druids, the meek and gentle system of Christianity. They succeeded in obtaining from Arviragus, the British king, permission to settle in a small island………”

William of Malmesbury also tells us how Joseph of Arimathea was sent over by St. Philip, and how a king of Britain, whom he does not name, gave Joseph and his companions the island called Ynyswitryn, where, by admonition of the Archangel Gabriel appearing to him in a vision, he built a chapel which he dedicated to the Virgin. This Island originally had been called Sarras or Avalon. William, however, makes no allusion to the Graal, Josephes, Mordrains, and Sarras or to Lancelot or Gawain, or even to the prophecy of Melkin. Obviously (as we have discussed previously), he thinks any other tradition about Joseph bringing with him holy relics i.e the Graal is a frivolous invention and basically just associates the old church with Joseph but omits to inform us of whole legend of Joseph. It is mainly Williams omission of a reference to Melkin's prophecy on which most scholars base their assumption that it must be of a later invention. This presumption of course has been added to with such trite pronouncements upon 'Abbadare', 'saphat' and the Baybars having an eastern connection. when the prophecy itself is so obviously concerned with its subject. which is clearly the Island of Avalon. How modern scholarship has made this contrived drivel stick and supposedly prove that Melkin and his prophecy was of a later invention is a curious mirroring of the earlier contrivances carried out by Glastonbury chroniclers. This is especially true when we consider Glastonbury chroniclers themselves attesting he was a geometer and his Geometry locates an island with stunning geometrical precision. We will assess in a moment the source of this misdirection by modern scholarship which is mainly derived from a publication known as ' Melkin the Bard and Esoteric tradition at Glastonbury Abbey' in the Downside review.

‘Now put me into that barge,’ seyde the kynge.
And so he ded sofftely, and there resceyved hym three ladyes
with grete mournyng. And so they sette hem downe, and in one
of their lappis kyng Arthure layde hys hede. And then the quene seyde,
“A, my dere brothir! Why have ye taryed so longe frome me?
Alas, thys wounde on youre hede hath caught overmuch coulde!"
And anone they rowed fromward the londe, and sir Bedyvere
behylde all tho ladyes go frowarde hym. Than sir Bedwere cryed
and seyde,
“A, my lorde Arthur, what shall becom of me, now ye go frome
me and leve me here alone amonge myne enemyes?”
“Comforte thyselff,” seyde the kynge, “and do as well as thou
mayste, for in me ys no truste for to truste in. For I must into the
vale of Avylyon to hele me of my grevous wounde. And if thou
here nevermore of me, pray for my soule!”
But ever the quene and ladyes wepte and shryked, that hit was
pité to hyre. And as sone as sir Bedwere had loste the
syght of the barge he wepte and wayled, and so toke the foreste
and wente all that nyght.
(Malory, Vinaver edition p. 716).

It is probably due to accounts that had the Queen living at the advent of Arthur's death, that we get the whole 'Second wife' scenario from Glastonbury, as earlier material had the king buried alonside Guinevere who had died previously.


Glastonbury Abbey

There are few places where history and mythology, beauty and tragedy, dissolution and rebirth, meet so powerfully as in Glastonbury Abbey.

Two great stories associated with the Abbey are forever linked with the charisma of the place and indeed the whole of Glastonbury. These stories have been repeatedly shown to be open to all kinds of criticism but stubbornly resist the debunking, thus demonstrating the power of the combination of myth and landscape.

The first story tells a foundation legend. The earliest church on the site was founded by Joseph of Arimathea, an enigmatic character who appears only briefly in the Bible but in a very important role as it was his tomb that Jesus was placed in after the crucifixion and thereby provided a safe space for the most important event in Christianity, the Resurrection.

Joseph became an irresistible subject for story tellers. Having witnessed the crucifixion, he had collected some of Christ’s blood from the spear wound in his side. One tale told of him and a group of twelve followers coming to Glastonbury in 63AD and being granted land by the local ruler. A small circular wooden church was built and surrounded by huts. Unfortunately the earliest forms of this story date from a thousand years later. Volumes of books both for and against this charming story have been written and will continue to be written.

One thing is clear. When the Saxons took control of the area they did find an old church whose aura of sanctity was such that they chose to preserve it and make it the centre of an ecclesiastical site granted considerable status by a royal charter.

A number of important saints are linked with the Abbey during the early days, including the patron saints of Ireland and Wales. Patrick was an Abbot and David made an important visit.

The Abbey’s prestige increased tremendously during Saxon times. Its most famous Abbot, St Dunstan, became Archbishop of Canterbury. Stories associate him with alchemy and demon-busting. He was assuredly a remarkable man.

The Norman conquest saw a massive makeover but, once again, the sanctity of the mysterious Old Church left it in place and increasingly revered as a place of pilgrimage.

A disastrous fire in 1184 saw the ancient building destroyed. A new Lady Chapel was built in the exact same place, supposedly to the same geometrical plan, and this served as the generator of the subsequent medieval buildings. This oldest part of the remains is the best preserved.

It is at this point that the second great Glastonbury story comes in. During the time of the construction of the new church, the grave of King Arthur and Guinevere was discovered and skeletons recovered. This event continues to generate passionate debate in the present day. The place from where the bones were excavated is marked by a sign and any tour of the Abbey must take it in.

In later years an elaborate tomb was built in the Choir area of the newly-expanded complex of buildings and the bones inspected during a visit by Edward I.

From that moment Glastonbury became identified with the Isle of Avalon. This is yet another area of disagreement. The discovery of the grave seemed to suggest some sort of logic: there were stories of Arthur that said he was laid to rest at Avalon and he’d been found at Glastonbury therefore it must be Avalon. The Celtic traditions of islands of the dead don’t really suggest there was only one of them. The name “Avalon” may well have originally referred to a location other than Glastonbury. What cannot be doubted is that all of the characteristics of Avalon are present in Glastonbury. If it isn’t the original one it probably fits the bill even better. The modern Avalonians would affirm that Glastonbury remains a functional Isle of Avalon to this very day and, beyond the sneering of the debunkers, it is that which is of most importance.

So began a golden age. The Arthurian mythos with its quest for the Grail inspired the whole of Europe. Glastonbury’s fame as his resting place gave it a unique status. The Abbey and its lands were almost an independent state, having been granted unique privileges by successive monarchs. Abbots sought to outdo each other with ever-larger building projects. Apart from old St Pauls in London, it became the longest church in England. The blessings of Our Lady of Glastonbury seemed tangible. All of this endured until the time of Henry VIII.

Statue of Our Lady of Glastonbury from Catholic Church based on depiction in medieval Abbey seal.

Henry perpetrated perhaps the greatest British cultural atrocity. His Dissolution of the Monasteries was carried out in a needlessly wanton manner. What happened at Glastonbury in November 1539 was the worst example of the entire process. The elderly abbot, Richard Whiting, was set up on a blatantly false charge of treason. Along with two colleagues, he was sentenced to death. The old man was stretched and tied on a hurdle. This was dragged by a horse through the town, past the Abbey, and up to the summit of the Tor, where gallows had been erected. There the three men were executed. Whiting’s head was removed and placed above the Abbey gate. The rest of his body was cut into four pieces that were displayed in nearby towns.

Martyred Abbot Richard Whiting.

The contents of the Abbey library were not carefully relocated. Pages of priceless manuscripts were found as litter in the streets. The bones displayed as Arthur and Guenevere’s were lost. Who knows what modern forensic science could have told us if they were still available? The monks were dispersed. Before long the majestic edifice of the building was pillaged for raw material. One of its later owners used explosives to blow great holes in the walls to satisfy his materialistic priorities. A number of locals did rather well from the process. The Grail Chalice of British Christendom disappeared, leaving a wasteland behind. For hundreds of years Glastonbury seemed to go into a kind of suspended animation. Such was the death that preceded the rebirth.

At the beginning of the twentieth century the Abbey ruins were put up for auction and passed into the hands of the Church of England. In 1908 a Bristol architect named Frederick Bligh Bond was placed in charge of archaeological excavations there. He quickly achieved notable results. A chapel mentioned in records but physically lost was located. Further good work followed. Boosted by his success, Bond revealed his unorthodox methodology. Automatic writing was used to contact the collective intelligence of the departed monks, who referred to themselves as the “Company of Avalon”. The very first message had said that ‘All knowledge is eternal and is available to mental sympathy.’ He recorded the whole process in two books, The Gate of Remembrance in 1918, and The Company of Avalon in 1924.

Bond carefully studied the architectural form of the Abbey. It was he who first suggested that numerical codes, suggestive of esoteric ideas, were embodied in the geometry of its design. This inspired sixties visionary John Michell to state that the Biblical New Jerusalem was the template here. Bond’s work is controversial and was never fully endorsed by archaeologists and he was eventually removed from his post.

A number of drawings from his work are very evocative of the time of the Abbey just before the Dissolution. Contemplation of them is a nice preparation for a visit.

This extraordinary episode heralded the rebirth of Glastonbury. For those willing to consider such possibilities, the dynamic appeared to come from the invisible realms, from spiritual forces linked with the mysteries of Arthur and the Grail, Joseph of Arimathea and a whole host of saints. It gave hope that eventually, the horrors perpetrated by Henry VIII could one day be annulled and transcended. It all affirms that Glastonbury is alive and that the inspiration that sustained the Abbey is still available.

This large painting in the Abbey Museum entrance area can be a good place to begin communion with the Company of Avalon monks before entering into their realm.


Glastonbury Abbey

From my friend Chris Berard, an interesting article from arstechnica:

Medieval monks invented King Arthur’s grave as an attraction to raise money

The economic history of Glastonbury Abbey is far more intriguing than the myth.

Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset, England, is the legendary resting place of King Arthur and Guinevere, and for centuries people have visited to see the grave of the mythical fifth-century King of the Britons and his bride. But the reality behind the abbey’s claim to fame had little to do with early monarchy. It was mostly about economics.

Archaeology magazine’s Jason Urbanus reports on new findings from University of Reading archaeologist Roberta Gilchrist, who heads up the Glastonbury Archaeological Archive Project, an intensive reexamination of 75 years’ worth of excavations and discoveries from Glastonbury Abbey, many of which have been stored for decades without any scientific analysis. Gilchrist and her colleagues have found evidence that occupation of the Glastonbury site may indeed date back to the purported year of Arthur’s reign in the fifth century, but not due to any mystical connection with the king.

We know for certain that Glastonbury was a thriving community in the seventh century, where Saxon villagers created large furnaces to melt down and recycle Roman glass. Gilchrist’s project has confirmed that the glassworks predated the abbey, possibly by centuries, and was one of the largest glass production facilities in England at the time.

In the early eighth century, King Ine of Wessex offered an endowment to a burgeoning abbey on the site. Thus began the rise of what ultimately became the wealthiest monastery in England. Towering atop a picturesque hill, the abbey grew famous for its beauty and its lucrative glassworks, drawing pilgrims and visitors from all over England and beyond.

Indeed, the abbey was already famous abroad when the Norman Conquest brought England under French control in 1066. The Norman invaders happily claimed the abbey as their own, adding sumptuous new buildings and enriching it further. The monastery continued to grow and thrive for over a century when tragedy struck. A massive fire in 1184 destroyed nearly all the buildings and treasures that the monks had amassed, converting a famous attraction into a smoking ruin overnight.

As they struggled to get funds to rebuild, the monks needed something to make the abbey seem significant again. It was now competing with Westminster Abbey, which had been established in 1065 and whose soaring architecture was already a marvel. But there was one thing Glastonbury could have that Westminster didn’t. In the 1190s, Glastonbury monks let it be known that they had discovered the skeletons of King Arthur and Guinevere in a tree trunk, buried deep underground they relocated the grave onto the grounds of the Abbey’s new church.

With the help of archaeologists like Gilchrist, however, we are coming to understand that Glastonbury’s significance is far more complicated than we ever imagined. It was a community that thrived on its craft production of glass and then later on its reinvention as part of the Arthurian legend. You might say that Glastonbury’s twelfth-century monks were very modern indeed. They cashed in on the abbey’s long history, using it to turn myth into money.


Watch the video: U2 - Glastonbury 2011 Full HD Video (January 2022).