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Classical Columns, Tharros.

Classical Columns, Tharros.


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Tharros

Tharros (also spelled Tharras, Greek: Θάρρας , Ptol., Tarrae or Tarras) was an ancient city on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy, and is currently an archaeological site near the village of San Giovanni di Sinis, municipality of Cabras, in the Province of Oristano. It is located on the southern shores of the Sinis peninsula, that forms the northern cape of the Bay of Oristano, the cape of San Marco. Tharros, mentioned by Ptolemy and in the Itineraries, seems to have been one of the most important places on the island.

Archaeological research done in the area of Tharros has established that in the eighth century BC the town was founded by Phoenicians. On the remains of a former village built by the nuragic peoples (1900-730 BC [1] ) on top of the hill called Su Muru Mannu they founded a tophet, an open-air sacred place common for several installations of Phoenicians in the western Mediterranean, and seen as a first sign of colonization and urbanization. Excavations have shown that from the eighth century BC until the abandonment of Tharros in the 10th century the place was inhabited, first by Phoenicians, then by the Punics and then under Roman domination. The town was the capital of the medieval Guidicato of Arborea, a Roman/Byzantine relict state from the 9th century until 1070 when Orzocorre I relocated to Oristano under pressure of Saracen raiders. The town was effectively abandoned at this time or shortly thereafter. The site was used for centuries after that as a quarry for building materials for the surrounding villages and towns. Certainly there has always been a strong Sardic element during the whole time of its existence. An inscription records the repair of the road from Tharras to Cornus as late as the reign of the emperor Philip. [2] The Antonine Itinerary correctly places it 18 miles from Cornus and 12 from Othoca (modern Santa Giusta near Oristano). [3]

The area is now an open-air museum, and still excavations are done bringing to light ever more details of the past of this town. What is to be seen is most of the period of Roman domination or early Christianity. Amongst the interesting structures is the tophet itself, the bath installations, the temple foundations and a part of the area with houses and artisan workshops.

Most of the artifacts can be found in the Archaeological Museum at Cagliari, in the Antiquarium Arborense, the Archaeological Museum of the town of Cabras and in the British Museum, London. [4]


The museum's architecture: Classical with modern details

Have you ever wondered why the exterior of the National Museum of American History looks the way it does?


Architectural sketch of the proposed Museum of History and Technology

Originally called the Museum of History and Technology, the building was designed by the architectural firm McKim, Mead, and White to blend the traditional architecture of the National Mall with more modern design to reflect the museum’s technological subject matter as well as its own role as a cutting edge museum. According to a 1988 interview with architect Walker O. Cain, “this [1950s and 60s] was a curious time. It isn’t that modern had taken over or that the traditional had totally relinquished control the problem was how to resolve the two.” As a result, the building is what Cain describes as “classical in definition, and the detailing is modern.”


(Left) National Museum of Natural History, c. 1911. Smithsonian Institution Archives. (Right) National Gallery of Art West Building. Photo by flickr user iainr.

Classical architecture in the style of ancient Greece or Rome is characterized by symmetry, repetition, domes, carved decorations, columns, and large broad terraced bases. Many buildings on the National Mall, like the National Museum of Natural History, the National Gallery West building, the Lincoln Memorial, and the United States Capitol, show this classical influence. The cumulative effect of these designs was intended to create a “monumental core” within the nation’s capital, suggesting legitimacy, splendor, formality, and a firm grounding in history.


(Left) Lincoln Memorial, c. 1920. Smithsonian Institution Archives. (Right) United States Capitol Building. American Sculpture Photograph Study Collection, Smithsonian American Art Museum.

Modernist architecture, on the other hand, is characterized by less ornately decorated exteriors, more sheer planes, and abstract shapes. The Hirshhorn Museum and Scultpure Garden and the East Building of the National Gallery of Art are good examples.


(Left) Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, c. 1986. Smithsonian Institution Archives. (Right) National Gallery of Art East building. Photo by Flickr user iainr.

The National Museum of American History features both of these influences. For example, the most distinct feature of the museum’s design is the recessed and projecting bays of the exterior walls. The classical influence on this design is evident in the repetition and symmetry of the bays, which resemble columns like those on the Lincoln Memorial. However, in keeping with more abstract modernist aesthetics, the sheer marble planes merely suggest columns rather than actually forming them. The cornice around the top of the museum is another classical feature, but is also modern in that it breaks from tradition by being supported by horizontal outriggers to create a more abstract “shadow cornice.” Finally, rather than having small windows typically used in classical architecture, the museum features large glass windows, meant to connect the inside of the museum to the outside while providing a view of the surrounding “monumental core” of the city. In these and other features, the classical and modern characteristics combine to create a building that remembers the past while looking to the future.

Ben Miller is an intern with the New Media Program at the National Museum of American History.


Ancient Architecture and Construction History

The manufacture of salted fish in the Cádiz Bay reached a great popularity during the Phoenician and Punic era and continued in Roman times. The distribution and trade of these products throughout the Mediterranean were linked to the growth of a powerful supplementary pottery industry. The massive quantities of amphorae suitable for maritime trade required annually for the fishy business led to the creation of dozens of ceramic kilns that supplied the Bay of Cadiz region, producing fineware, cooking wares and terracottas in addition to amphorae.

These pottery workshops have been documented in sites such as Pery Junquera, Gallineras, Villa Maruja, Calle Real, Camposoto or Torre Alta, and the earliest productions can be dated in the 6th century BC. Most of them remained active until the establishment of Roman-style ateliers during the 2nd century BC. In Torre Alta and Camposoto some well-preserved examples of Phoenician and Punic kilns were unearthed and studied (and are still in situ or included in the local museum exhibition). The research conducted on those kilns has made possible to identify the raw materials used, the evolution of the construction techniques and the adoption of new features taken from the Carthaginian and Roman artisanal traditions.

Using archaeological digital tools such as photogrammetric documentation and 3D modeling we have carried out a historical, typological and architectural analysis of the kilns, studying their origin, features and evolution, and also focusing on simulating of their production timing and capacities. Results of this ongoing research and of new forthcoming projects will be presented in this paper.


Tharros history

Tharros was likely founded by the Phoenicians towards the end of the 8th century, and is evidenced by the necropolis and tophet – both typical of Phoenician and Punic burial areas. The Phoenician necropolis was built at Cape San Marco. It was here that cremated bodies along with rich burial goods such as jewellery were buried in circular or elongated pits dug into the sand.

The tophets were used from the 7th century, an contained the burnt remains of children and sacrificed animals. Alongside the tophets were hundreds of stelae made of sandstone, often representing small temples and divine symbols. During the later 6th century, Tharros was conquered by the Carthaginians who built a massive new temple and fortified the city with defensive walls. A handicraft district thrived in the 5th century, specialising in metalwork.

Between the Roman conquest of Sardinia in 238 BC and the end of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Tharros underwent extensive transformation. In the Republic 2nd century BC, the great defensive wall was renovated and a a new urban system connected by roads made of volcanic balsalt were established. The Romans also built a bathing complex and the Castellum Aquae to distribute fresh water from the aqueduct.

During the early Christian era however, the Roman buildings were harvested for construction and weathered the elements poorly. With Saracen raids increasing, depopulation followed. Although, Tharros remained an official church seat until 1071 when the bishop moved to Oristano, marking the end of a thriving ancient city.

From the 17th century, the necropolises in Tharros were haunted by treasure hunters and it was not until the late 19th century that excavations began. A large part of the punic-Roman city was unearthed in the 1950s including the Temple of Demeter and fortifications of Murru Mannu. In 2004, over 100 Phoenician and Punic tombs were found, giving us insight into funerary rituals of the period.


Temple with Doric columns

The temple, which was the main place of Punic worship, is located in the center of the city and was excavated by G. Pesce in 1958-59. The temple structure appeared largely dismantled, possibly recycled, and filled in with debris. A lime mortar pavement was laid down over the temple during the first centuries of the Roman Empire.
The main feature of the temple, known as “monumental” for its grandeur, is a ramp of terraced steps, carved from a massive block of sandstone. The emerging rock surfacewas, in fact, cut to highlight the monumental structure, which is at the center of a lowered area, and surrounded by a wall (temenos) built with large square blocks.

Detail of the Doric columns.

Pesce assumed three stages of life for the temple. In the first archaic period, the sacred area consisted of an irregular shaped rock with many holes, used primarily for offerings and rituals.
In the second phase, occurring between the 4 th and the 3 rd century BC, the original sandstone rock would have been built upon, with the highest part decorated on three sides by Doric columns and pilasters in relief. The columns and pilasters were carved out of sandstone block from the floor up, and were probably originally capped by Doric semi-capitals and Aeolian-Cypriot capitals. On top of the rock structure, Pesce suggested that there was a chapel housing a statue of God, or a simple altar.

Block with an Aeolian-Cypriot capital.

In the third and final phase, the Punic temple was destroyed and filled in with lime and crushed stone, on the top of which the ground floor of a new sanctuary was constructed. This sanctuary was a Roman temple built on a square base made of blocks taken from the previous temple, which is still visible in the eastern part of this area. This phase also featured the construction of a large cistern located along the southern side of the Punic temple.


President Joe Biden launched an unprecedented purge of the U.S. Commission on Fine Arts Monday, according to a letter reviewed by The Federalist demanding resignation letters by 6 p.m. from four of the seven members, including the chairman.

Those members include sculptor Chas Fagan, architect Steven Spandle, landscape architect Perry Guillot, and Chairman Justin Shubow, a writer and expert on architecture and civic beauty.

Fagan is a renowned sculptor and painter whose statue of former President Ronald Reagan stands in the Capitol Rotunda, and whose statue of Civil Rights icon Rosa Parks stands in the National Cathedral. His paintings include the Vatican’s official portrait of St. Mother Theresa and first lady Barbara Bush’s official portrait.

Spandle’s work includes the White House’s beautiful new Tennis Pavilion, and Guillot’s works include the new White House Rose Garden and Children’s Garden.

Shubow also serves as the president of the National Civic Art Society, a non-profit that fights for classicism in public works, and is at the forefront of the battle to rebuild Manhattan’s destroyed Penn Station.

The commission is an independent federal agency established by Congress that advises Congress and the White House on public (civic) architecture on federal lands and in the District of Columbia. Established in 1910, its seven members are chosen from “disciplines including art, architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design,” and are appointed by the president to serve four-year terms. No commission member has ever been asked to tender their resignation before their term was up.

The Trump administration stressed classical architecture, though traditionally the issue has been non-partisan and has included such champions as former President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and former Democratic Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan.

While classical architecture remains the hands-down favorite of the American public, its opponents are powerful in academia, elite architecture circles, and, it seems, in the Biden White House. Biden revoked former President Donald Trump’s “Make America Beautiful Again” executive order early in his administration, with supporters claiming classical architecture is somehow connected to fascism.

Shubow was joined by fellow commissioner James McCrery, an architect and the head of the Catholic University of America’s architecture department, joined The Federalist Radio Hour for a podcast discussing the Trump administration’s order in December.


A Nuragic settlement, a Phoenician centre of commerce, a Carthaginian fortress, a Roman urbs, a Byzantine administrative centre and capital of Arborea: in Tharros, you will find more than two thousand years of history. The ruins of the ancient city, founded in the 8th century BC and abandoned in the 11th century AD, are located on the southern extremity of the Sinis peninsula, in the territory of Cabras. The ‘outdoor museum’ is a natural amphitheatre overlooking the sea. On its borders, there is the isthmus of Capo San Marco as well as the hills of the village of San Giovanni di Sinis and su Murru Mannu (big face), on top of which you will find the oldest historical evidence: the remains of the Nuragic village, abandoned before the arrival of the Phoenicians. There are also the remains of two nuraghi on the promontory of San Marco and another is thought to be at the base of the Tower of San Giovanni, one of the three – in addition to the ‘Old Tower’ and Turr’e Seu – built to defend the Gulf from the Spanish Crown.

The Phoenician legacy includes two necropolises and the tophet, a cemeterial shrine where urns containing the cremated remains of newborn babies and animals sacrificed were placed. With the advent of Carthage, burial accompanied cremation, Phoenician pit tombs were reused and ‘chamber tombs’ were added, indicated by rods with images of the deities Baal Hammon and Tanit. Thousands of grave goods artefacts come from the burial areas: ceramics, jewellery, amulets, scarabs. Under Punic domination, the districts of Tharros, including the artisan district specialized in iron metallurgy of Montiferru, extended in ‘terrace’ style on the hill of San Giovanni, where the defensive walls of the fortified city began. Before the Roman conquest (238 BC) civilian and religious buildings were erected, including the temple ‘of the Doric semi-pedestals’, a ramp with steps, decorated in relief at the top with Doric semi-pedestals and pilasters. The temple was partly dismantled during the imperial age and a new sanctuary was built – one of many that the Romans dotted across the city. In Little Temple K, consisting of a portico and an altar with an Egyptian cyma cornice, the re-use of two blocks on which Semitic letters are engraved stands out. These are pertinent to a probable (pre-existing) ‘Punic temple of inscriptions’. The temple with a Semitic-type layout is fascinating and is delimited by rock walls on three of its four sides. In the middle, there was a fence with columns, the floor of which is decorated with a multi-coloured mosaic. The Temple of Demeter owes its name to an environment where two terracotta artefacts linked to the goddess were discovered. The Tetrastyle temple overlooking the sea will strike you: two columns (rebuilt) are still standing, along with the foundations. Numerous ‘pieces’ of the temples were reused, for example in the Church of Santa Giusta.

In Republican times, a renewal process was initiated and culminated in the imperial period. The urbs was transformed according to orthogonal designs: you can walk along ‘even’ streets, paved and with drainage channels, the expression of a complex sewer system. While walking on Cardus and Decumanus maximi, you can imagine the life and activities that took place two thousand years ago. In the heyday, three thermal constructions were built, close to the sea. In the Middle Ages, parts of the baths became Byzantine burial areas, while others were annexed to an Early Christian complex including a baptistery and a sanctuary, perhaps the ecclesia sancti Marci. From the Imperial Age you can also admire parts of the aqueduct, particularly castellum aquae, the distribution tank in the city centre, ‘waterproofed’ and divided into three naves by pillars. The Roman burial areas were larger than those of their predecessors, with ‘Capuchin-type’ tombs, burials in amphorae, mausoleums, crypts and other types of burials.

Before the episcopal see was transferred to Oristano (1071), which became the capital of Arborea, Tharros underwent a slow decline, linked to the Saracen invasions and consequent depopulation. From the 17th century, the grave goods of the necropolises were prey to treasure hunters. The official excavations carried out in the 19th century were just as deleterious. In the decades that followed, part of the ‘loot’ ended up at the British Museum in London, part at the Archaeogical Museums of Cabras and Cagliari and at the Antiquarium Arborense in Oristano. After the 19th century scientific excavations, investigations began again in the mid-20th century. They have never stopped, continually (and still) providing us with new discoveries.


A Guide To Visiting Tharros

There are three different Nuraghe remains in the vicinity of Tharros, but it is thought that, at the moment of the city foundation by Phoenicians in the VIII century BC, those prehistoric villages had already been abandoned.

As the city went under Carthage’s control, it grew to the point of probably becoming the island’s capital some of the things left from this early age are two necropolis (built a few kilometers apart from each other, which suggest there probably were two different, small villages rather than a bigger one) and the Tophet, in which over 5000 urns and 300 stone tablets have been found, showing the sacred place’s importance during the Punic age.

Another important remain is the Quartiere Artigianale Su Murru Mannu: it’s the blacksmiths’ and artisans’ district and it has been destined, for around three centuries, to the making of weapons, pottery, and other crafts, specializing in metal’s manufacturing.

Rome conquered Tharros in 238 BC, after the Third Punic War. Romans immediately began renewing and often re-building whole parts of the city, including the fortifications of Punic craft.

One of the most important buildings on the site, the Tempio Tetrastilo, dates back to this era. It was erected in the 1st century BC on a pre-existing and probably sacred ground and originally had four columns, of which only one capital is left the two columns we can admire nowadays are a recent copy that was made for touristic purposes only. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the temple was a big structure dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva but no evidence has been found.

Other important (and ubiquitous in Roman sites) ruins are the thermal complexes, which in the city of Tharros are in a particularly good shape (there are still some mosaics on the floors) and are located in three different spots. The most relevant one is the so-called Terme n. 3: although only partially visible and still under excavation, this thermal complex is located close to the aqueduct and Castellum Aquae, which were essential to both the city in general and the thermal complexes.

A little outside of the city center you can find the Tempietto K. It has a rectangular shape, a well-preserved altar, and was mainly used during the Imperial age. However, archaeologists have found that it is built from Punic scraps: it has, in fact, several Punic inscriptions on its stones and has therefore often been called “Tempio delle Iscrizioni” (“Temple of Inscriptions”).

As I have said before, Tharros flourished greatly during the Roman Imperial age. It expanded, sturdy roads were newly made or rebuilt, and the population grew steadily, causing the need for broader, bigger cemeteries that are still visible in the city outskirts and have gifted archeologists a lot of relics which are widely kept in Cabras’s Museo Civico Giovanni Marongiu. This museum, founded in 1997, is located in Via Tharros, Cabras, and is the safe storage of thousand of relics from the earliest ages of our territory, starting from the Neolithic age, up to more recent eras.

Of course, the city doesn’t consist of solely public buildings: private houses are numerous as well and you will be able to see and examine their structure and details during your stroll in Tharros.

The city kept its important role during early Christianity remains of a church (dedicated, maybe, to St. Marcus) have been found in the area, but only the Battistero is left nowadays. This baptismal font was built around the V-VI century AC with scrap material, probably stolen from a temple of an earlier age.

This church was probably substituted by the San Giovanni di Sinis Church, located right outside the Tharros area, in the still inhabited, homonymous village of San Giovanni di Sinis. It was firstly built in a Paleo-Christian style during the VI century AC and later expanded and improved during the XI century, when Tharros was, once again, capital, this time of the Giudicato di Arborea.

Tharros was definitively abandoned around 1050 AC because of recurrent and increasingly violent pirates’ incursions. The most recent historical building is the Torre di San Giovanni, a fort appositely built by the government to keep a watch on the sea in the hopes to prevent such barbaric assaults.

Are you curious about how -and when- to visit this beautiful, history-filled place? Just keep reading!

Tharros, much like Nora, is perfect for day trips from Cagliari

Greek architectural orders

Identify the classical orders—the architectural styles developed by the Greeks and Romans used to this day.

An architectural order describes a style of building. In classical architecture each order is readily identifiable by means of its proportions and profiles, as well as by various aesthetic details. The style of column employed serves as a useful index of the style itself, so identifying the order of the column will then, in turn, situate the order employed in the structure as a whole. The classical orders—described by the labels Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian—do not merely serve as descriptors for the remains of ancient buildings, but as an index to the architectural and aesthetic development of Greek architecture itself.

The Doric order

The Doric order is the earliest of the three Classical orders of architecture and represents an important moment in Mediterranean architecture when monumental construction made the transition from impermanent materials (i.e. wood) to permanent materials, namely stone. The Doric order is characterized by a plain, unadorned column capital and a column that rests directly on the stylobate of the temple without a base. The Doric entablature includes a frieze composed of trigylphs (vertical plaques with three divisions) and metopes (square spaces for either painted or sculpted decoration). The columns are fluted and are of sturdy, if not stocky, proportions.

Iktinos and Kallikrates, The Parthenon, 447 – 432 B.C.E., Athens

The Doric order emerged on the Greek mainland during the course of the late seventh century B.C.E. and remained the predominant order for Greek temple construction through the early fifth century B.C.E., although notable buildings of the Classical period—especially the canonical Parthenon in Athens—still employ it. By 575 B.C.E the order may be properly identified, with some of the earliest surviving elements being the metope plaques from the Temple of Apollo at Thermon. Other early, but fragmentary, examples include the sanctuary of Hera at Argos, votive capitals from the island of Aegina, as well as early Doric capitals that were a part of the Temple of Athena Pronaia at Delphi in central Greece. The Doric order finds perhaps its fullest expression in the Parthenon (c. 447-432 B.C.E.) at Athens designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates.

The Ionic order

Ionic capital, north porch of the Erechtheion, 421-407 B.C.E., marble, Acropolis, Athens

As its names suggests, the Ionic Order originated in Ionia, a coastal region of central Anatolia (today Turkey) where a number of ancient Greek settlements were located. Volutes (scroll-like ornaments) characterize the Ionic capital and a base supports the column, unlike the Doric order. The Ionic order developed in Ionia during the mid-sixth century B.C.E. and had been transmitted to mainland Greece by the fifth century B.C.E. Among the earliest examples of the Ionic capital is the inscribed votive column from Naxos, dating to the end of the seventh century B.C.E.

The monumental temple dedicated to Hera on the island of Samos, built by the architect Rhoikos
c. 570-560 B.C.E., was the first of the great Ionic buildings, although it was destroyed by earthquake in short order. The sixth century B.C.E. Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, a wonder of the ancient world, was also an Ionic design. In Athens the Ionic order influences some elements of the Parthenon (447-432 B.C.E.), notably the Ionic frieze that encircles the cella of the temple. Ionic columns are also employed in the interior of the monumental gateway to the Acropolis known as the Propylaia (c. 437-432 B.C.E.). The Ionic was promoted to an exterior order in the construction of the Erechtheion (c. 421-405 B.C.E.) on the Athenian Acropolis (image below).

North porch of the Erechtheion, 421-407 B.C.E., marble, Acropolis, Athens

The Ionic order is notable for its graceful proportions, giving a more slender and elegant profile than the Doric order. The ancient Roman architect Vitruvius compared the Doric module to a sturdy, male body, while the Ionic was possessed of more graceful, feminine proportions. The Ionic order incorporates a running frieze of continuous sculptural relief, as opposed to the Doric frieze composed of triglyphs and metopes.

The Corinthian order

The Corinthian order is both the latest and the most elaborate of the Classical orders of architecture. The order was employed in both Greek and Roman architecture, with minor variations, and gave rise, in turn, to the Composite order. As the name suggests, the origins of the order were connected in antiquity with the Greek city-state of Corinth where, according to the architectural writer Vitruvius, the sculptor Callimachus drew a set of acanthus leaves surrounding a votive basket (Vitr. 4.1.9-10). In archaeological terms the earliest known Corinthian capital comes from the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae and dates to c. 427 B.C.E.

The defining element of the Corinthian order is its elaborate, carved capital, which incorporates even more vegetal elements than the Ionic order does. The stylized, carved leaves of an acanthus plant grow around the capital, generally terminating just below the abacus. The Romans favored the Corinthian order, perhaps due to its slender properties. The order is employed in numerous notable Roman architectural monuments, including the Temple of Mars Ultor and the Pantheon in Rome, and the Maison Carrée in Nîmes.

Legacy of the Greek architectural canon

The canonical Greek architectural orders have exerted influence on architects and their imaginations for thousands of years. While Greek architecture played a key role in inspiring the Romans, its legacy also stretches far beyond antiquity. When James “Athenian” Stuart and Nicholas Revett visited Greece during the period from 1748 to 1755 and subsequently published The Antiquities of Athens and Other Monuments of Greece (1762) in London, the Neoclassical revolution was underway. Captivated by Stuart and Revett’s measured drawings and engravings, Europe suddenly demanded Greek forms. Architects the likes of Robert Adam drove the Neoclassical movement, creating buildings like Kedleston Hall, an English country house in Kedleston, Derbyshire. Neoclassicism even jumped the Atlantic Ocean to North America, spreading the rich heritage of Classical architecture even further—and making the Greek architectural orders not only extremely influential, but eternal.

Additional resources:

B. A. Barletta, The Origins of the Greek Architectural Orders (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

H. Berve, G. Gruben and M. Hirmer, Greek temples, theatres, and shrines (New York: H. N. Abrams, 1963).

F. A. Cooper, The Temple of Apollo Bassitas 4 vol. (Princeton N.J.: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1992-1996).

J. J. Coulton, Ancient Greek Architects at Work: Problems of Structure and Design (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1982).

W. B. Dinsmoor, The Architecture of Greece: an Account of its Historic Development 3rd ed. (London: Batsford, 1950).

W. B. Dinsmoor, The Propylaia to the Athenian Akropolis, 1: The predecessors (Princeton NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1980).

P. Gros, Vitruve et la tradition des traités d’architecture: fabrica et ratiocinatio: recueil d’études (Rome: École française de Rome, 2006).

G. Gruben, “Naxos und Delos. Studien zur archaischen Architektur der Kykladen.” Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts 112 (1997): 261–416.

Marie-Christine Hellmann, L’architecture Grecque 3 vol. (Paris: Picard, 2002-2010).

A. Hoffmann, E.-L. Schwander, W. Hoepfner, and G. Brands (eds), Bautechnik der Antike: internationales Kolloquium in Berlin vom 15.-17. Februar 1990 (Diskussionen zur archäologischen Bauforschung 5), (Mainz am Rhein: P. von Zabern, 1991).

M. Korres, From Pentelicon to the Parthenon: The Ancient Quarries and the Story of a Half-Worked Column Capital of the First Marble Parthenon (Athens: Melissa Publishing House, 1995).

M. Korres, Stones of the Parthenon (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2000).

A. W. Lawrence, Greek Architecture 5th ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996).

D. S. Robertson, Greek and Roman Architecture 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969).

J. Rykwert, The Dancing Column: On Order in Architecture (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996).

E.-L. Schwandner and G. Gruben, Säule und Gebälk: zu Struktur und Wandlungsprozess griechisch-römischer Architektur: Bauforschungskolloquium in Berlin vom 16. bis 18. Juni 1994 (Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1996).

M. Wilson Jones, “Designing the Roman Corinthian Order,” Journal of Roman Archaeology, vol. 2, 1989, pp. 35-69.


Watch the video: Mystery Ink - Intelligentsia Imperium Tharros Brown (May 2022).