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Montréal Castle

Montréal Castle


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The 12th century Château de Montréal is a château in the Dordogne department located near the commune of Issac, in southwestern France. It overlooks the valley of the Crempse River.

It was built as a castle in the 12th century and rebuilt in the 16th century. It has been classified as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since 1948. It is now a private residence.

The Pontbriand family built the château in its current form. They also built the chapel Sainte-Épine. They modernized the double walls of the ramparts, which are very well preserved, and added the Renaissance-style façade of the residence.

In summertime, the house is open for visits of the salons, which have a collection of portraits, and the circular library in the tower.

The gardens were built on the ramparts of the fortress at the beginning of the 20th century by Achille Duchêne. The lower garden is in the Italian style, and features hibiscus and yew trees, and walls covered with white roses and white clematis. The upper garden is a garden à la française, with ornamental flower beds and a topiary garden. The garden was badly damaged by a storm in 1999, and has been replanted. The gardens are classified by the Committee of Parks and Gardens of the Ministry of Culture as one of the Notable Gardens of France.


Crusader History of Montreal Castle in Shoubak, Jordan

This arched entry leads you inside Mons Regalis. Montreal Castle was built by a Crusader king and controlled by the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1115 until 1142. That year it became part of Oultrejordain, a vassal of the Jerusalem Kingdom rule by a lord. In 1176, the fort was transferred to Raynald of Châtillion when he married the lord’s daughter, Stephanie of Milly. This knight from the Second Crusade used the stronghold to terrorize and rob passing caravans. He was captured in 1187 during the Battle of Hattin and executed by Saladin. This first sultan of Syria and Egypt (1174 – 1193) proceeded to overthrow the rest of the Kingdom of Jerusalem within a few months. Then his troops attacked this garrison for 18 months before capturing it in 1189, the same year the Third Crusade began (1189 – 1192). Saladin’s Muslim forces used this fort as part of their defense against the Christians during that King’s Crusade.

Shobak Castle, Montreal Shobak, Jordan

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Character of the city

Montreal is a city with considerable French colonial history dating back to the 16th century. It began as a missionary settlement but soon became a fur-trading centre, a role that was enhanced after the conquest of New France by the British in 1763. Montreal’s location on the St. Lawrence proved to be a major advantage in its development as a transportation, manufacturing, and financial centre. From the time of the confederation of Canada (1867), Montreal was the largest metropolitan centre in the country until it was overtaken by Toronto in the 1970s. French Canadians are the majority population in Montreal, which is often said to be the second largest French-speaking city in the world (after Paris), though the accuracy of that statement is sometimes questioned (principally by those who make the same claim for Kinshasa and Algiers). Montreal’s economy, however, was long dominated by an Anglophone minority. The city has been a destination for many immigrants and is widely considered to be one of North America’s most cosmopolitan cities. Montreal remains a city of great charm, vivacity, and gaiety, as well as one of unquestioned modernity.

Just walking the streets of Montreal is an experience, especially the historic centre known as Old Montreal (Vieux-Montréal), which provides a window into the city’s rich history with its cobblestone streets and architectural styles ranging from the 16th century to the present.


Mount Stephen Club

Prior to closing it’s doors in December 2011, the Mount Stephen Club had been a meeting spot for the upper classes since 1926. It was a gentlemen’s private club located inside the home of railway magnate/philanthropist Sir George Stephen, which was built between 1880 and 1883. At the time, it had cost $600,000 to build (approx. $13 million today), a sum that represented an immense fortune for those days. Like Ravenscrag, it was designed in a Renaissance revival style.

Nowadays, the imposing abode is surrounded by modern buildings, health clubs, restaurants and condominium towers. As for the future use of the building itself, it has been announced that a new 80 room high-end boutique hotel will be built in back of the Stephen house and the former club will be used as its lobby.

Photo via Flickr: Musee McCord Museum

Photo via Wikimedia: McCord Museum


Volume One

Foreword (2-28)

Chapter 1: The Geology of the Mohawk Valley.

The Mohawk Valley physiographic province and its geographical importance — The Adirondack and Catskill regions of the Mohawk Valley — Little Falls Gorge, "the Gateway to the West" — Its mighty potholes — Little Falls "diamonds" — The Devonic fossil trees of Schoharie County, the world's oldest forest — The eastward and the westward flowing preglacial Mohawks — Glacial and postglacial periods — The mighty "Iromohawk", which made the Mohawk Valley of today. (45-82)

Chapter 2: Lower Mohawk Valley Geological History.

The preglacial lower Mohawk River — Changes of the Ice Age in the lower valley — Outlets of the postglacial Mohawk into Lake Albany — The geology of Cohoes Falls — The Cohoes Mastodon and Pleistocene animals of the Mohawk Valley. (83-91)

Chapter 3: Mohawk Valley Rocks.

A description of the rock formations which bear Mohawk Valley names — the Little Falls dolomite Trenton limestone and shale Canajoharie shale Utica shale Frankfort shale and sandstone Oneida conglomerate Clinton shale, sandstone, limestone and iron ore Cobleskill limestone Helderberg limestone Oriskany sandstone. (92-99)

Chapter 4: The Mohawk Valley Drainage System.

Its streams and lakes — Mohawk River and watershed — Valley lake systems — Points of interest — Topography, mountain and hill systems, peaks and plateaus. (100-106)

Chapter 5: The Mohawks.

The Mohawks, elder brothers of the Iroquois Confederacy and keepers of the eastern gate of the long house of the Five Nations — Eskimo, Algonquin and Mound Builder occupation of the region of present New York State — Strategic position and natural advantages of New York — Parker's hypothesis of the Iroquois invasion — Hochelaga, the great Mohawk castle on the St. Lawrence, at present Montreal — The Mohawks retreat to Vermont, 1570 — Beginning of the Hundred Years' War — Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks join the Senecas and Cayugas on the Iroquois trail — First four Mohawk castles in the Valley — Where Hiawatha and Dekanawida met and found refuge with the Mohawks — Mohawk and Iroquois life, habits, customs and warfare — Cartier's visit to the Mohawk castle of Hochelaga, 1535. (107-138)

Chapter 6: Chief Castles and Towns of the Mohawks.

Mohawk Indian castles in the Valley from the entrance of the Mohawks about 1580 to 1775, when they migrated to Canada — Description of Garoga by S. L. Frey — A vocabulary of the Mohawks in 1634. (139-153)

Chapter 7: Mohawk Indian Sites about Fort Plain, by Douglas Ayres, Jr.

Prehistoric village sites — Specimens found — A primeval pine-oak hill — Mohawk-Mohican battle ground — Wagner's hollow site — Ceremonial site near Freysbush Road. (154-161)

Chapter 8: Legend of the "Great Peace."

The legend of Dekanawida and Hayonwatha, the two adopted Mohawk chieftains and their "great peace" — Gayanashagowa, the great binding law of the council of the great peace — comment on the versions of the legend. (162-166)

Chapter 9: Dekanawida and Hiawatha.

The heroic legend of the formation of the league of Five Nations — Hayonwatha's journey to Dekanawida at the Mohawk town near Cohoes Falls — Adodarho subdued — the two Iroquois heroes unite the tribes at Onondaga. (167-186)

Chapter 10: 1609-1615, Champlain's Battles with the Mohawks and Oneidas.

Samuel de Champlain, founder of New France — Epochal defeat of the Mohawks on the shore of Lake Champlain in 1609 — Invasion of the Iroquois country and attack upon the Oneida castle, 1615 — repulse and wounding of Champlain — Champlain's warfare against the Five Nations makes them the deadly enemies of New France and sows the seed of its eventual destruction. (187-191)

Chapter 11: Voyage of Hudson, 1609, and settlement of New Netherland, 1613.

Henry Hudson sails up the Hudson River to Albany in 1609 — A boat's crew of the Half Moon passes the sprouts of the Mohawk — Dutch traders at New York, 1610-1613 — Four houses there in 1613 — Block's crew at New York, winter of 1613-1614 — 1614, Formation of the United New Netherlands Company — Building of forts and trading posts at Manhattan and Fort Nassau, at present Albany, 1614 — Holland in New World. (192-202)

Chapter 12: History of Albany, the Mohawks and the Mohawk Valley, 1614-1664.

1614, Establishment of Fort Nassau by Captain Hendrick Corstiaensen of the United New Netherland Co. — New York and Albany, the oldest cities in the thirteen original states — Albany settled in 1614 — Six years before the landing of pilgrims — 1614, three Dutchmen explore the Mohawk River to Canajoharie — 1618, Council of Elkins with Mohawks, Mohicans and Delawares at Tawasentha — The first chain of friendship between the Dutch and the Mohawks — 1621, the Dutch West India Co. — 1623, Building of Fort Orange — 1625, Mohawk-Mohican War — Settlers flee to Manhattan — 1630, The great manor of Rensselaerwyck of 700,000 acres, embracing a small part of the lower Mohawk Valley — 1634, Van Den Bogaert's mission to the Mohawks and Oneidas — 1637, coming of Van Curler — 1642, Dominie Megapolensis arrives — First church — Father Jogues captured by the Mohawks — Treaty with the Mohawks — Fort Cralo built — Friction between the Director General and the Rensselaerwyck authorities — 1644, Father Jogues escapes from Mohawks — 1646, Jogues returns — Slain at Osseruenon (Auriesville) — 1648, First school at Beverwyck — Visit of Stuyvesant — 1649, First council held by the Dutch with the Mohawks at one of their castles,Osseruenon — 1658, Glen settles at Scotia on the Mohawk, first permanent white settlement in the Mohawk Valley — 1659-1660, Scourge of smallpox among the Mohawks — 1661, Schenectady settled — 1664, English conquer New Netherland — Colonel Cartwright visits Esopus, Fort Orange and Schenectady establishing English rule — Fort Orange becomes Albany and New Netherland becomes New York. (203-219)

Chapter 13: Van Den Bogaert's Journal — 1634-5.

Van Den Bogaert's journal of 1634-5 of his journey into the Mohawk and Oneida country — The first written description of the Mohawk Valley by the surgeon of Fort Orange — Sites of the Mohawk castles and the Oneida castle visited by three Dutchmen on their 200 mile midwinter trip. (220-239)

Chapter 14: The Mohawks and Their Country.

A description of the Mohawk Indians, their country and that about Fort Orange, written in 1644 by Dominie Johannes Megapolensis, Reformed Dutch pastor of the colony of Rensselaerwyck — Entire strangers to all religion. (240-251)

Chapter 15: Isaac Jogues — 1642-1646.

Capture of the Jesuit missionary on the banks of the St. Lawrence — Brought to the lower Mohawk castle of Osseruenon, on site of present Auriesville — Tortures of Father Jogues and his companions — Renee Goupil, companion of Jogues, murdered — Jogues escapes to France, 1644 — Received by the queen — Returns to the Mohawk mission, 1646 — captured by warriors of the Mohawk Bear Clan — Invited to a banquet and slain. (252-273)

Chapter 16: History of the Mohawks — 1646-1666.

The Five Nations conquer the Indians of northeastern North America — 1655, Glen buys lands of the Mohawks — 1658, Glen settles at Scotia — 1659-1660, Smallpox scourge among the Mohawk castles — 1660, Turtle Clan moves to Gandawague 1661, Schenectady settled by Hollanders — 1661, Hertel a captive among the Mohawks — 1666, De Courcelle's expedition against the Mohawks fails. (274-279)

Chapter 17: De Tracy's Raid of 1666.

De Tracy's French, Canadian and Indian force burns the south side Mohawk castles of Gandawague, Andagoron, and Tionnontogen — French proclaim sovereignty over the Mohawk River country — The Mohawks are humbled. (280-284)

Chapter 18: New North Side Mohawk Towns — 1667.

Jesuit missions — Caughnawaga, Canagorha, Canajohara and Tionnontogen or Tionondogue, described by Greenhalgh in 1677 — Chronology of Jesuit missions among the Mohawks from 1648 to 1684. (285-295)

Chapter 19: North Side Mohawk Castles and Jesuit Missions 1666-1693.

1669, Condolence ceremony at Caughnawaga — Father Pierron in a controversy — Induces the Mohawks to renounce the worship of Aireskoi — 1670, Father Pierron in charge at Tionnontogen, Father Boniface at Caughnawaga — 1671, Father Bruyas in charge of the Mohawk missions — Christmas at St. Peter's, Caughnawaga — 1684, Father De Lamberville at Caughnawaga — Kryn leads forty Mohawk converts to Canada — 1675, Father Hennepin visits the Mohawk missions — 1676, Tegahkwita's baptism — 1677, Tegahkwita escapes to Canada — 1677, Visit of Greenhalgh — Adario, the Huron "rat," starts war — 1689, The Iroquois attack Montreal, killing and capturing 400 — Beginning of King William's war. (296-307)

Chapter 20: Battle of Kinquariones, 1669.

Mohican attacks on Caughnawaga, 1669 — Repulse of the invaders — Battle of Kinquariones, near Hoffmans — Mohawks, led by their war chief, the "Great Kryn", rout the Mohicans and kill their chief, Chicatabutt — Account of the conflict by Father Pierron, French Jesuit missionary at Caughnawaga, near present Fonda. (308-312)

Chapter 21: Settlement of Schenectady, 1661-1662.

Van Curler's letter to Governor Stuyvesant petitioning for a grant of the Groote Vlachte — The Mohawk grant of Schenectady lands in the original deed in Dutch and its translation — Objection to settlement — Van Curler's compromise agreement of 1663 signed by the fourteen Schenectady proprietors. (313-325)

Chapter 22: Settlers at Schenectady, 1661-4.

The fifteen proprietors of the Schenectady patents of 1664 — Their Schenectady lands and heirs — Arent Van Curler, Philip Hendrickse Brouwer, Alexander Lindsay Glen, Symon Volckertse Veeder, Tuenis Cornelise Swart, Marten Cornelise Van Ysselstyne, Arent Andriese Bratt, Bastian de Winter, Pieter Jacobse Borsboom, Pieter Danielse Van Olinda, Jacques Cornelise Van Slyck, Jan Barentse Wemp, Gerrit Bancker, Willem Teller, Pieter Adriaense Van Woggelum — Other freeholders of Schenectady, from 1661 to 1700. (326-351)

Chapter 23: Schenectady and Lower Mohawk Valley — 1664-1690.

Death of Van Curler, the city's founder, in 1667 — The Reformed Dutch Church building presented by Alexander Glen in 1682 — Formation of Albany County in 1683 — Schenectady Patent of 1684 — Massacre and burning of city in 1690. (352-369)

Chapter 24: Beginning of King William's War — 1688-1690.

Accession of King William to the throne of England — Beginning of his war in America, Leisler's rebellion, 1689 — The Albany Convention — Disorder and disunion in Albany and Schenectady — January, 1690, French and Indian raiders start for Albany. (370-379)

Chapter 25: 1690 — Massacre and Burning of Schenectady.

French and Indian raiding party burn Schenectady and massacre its inhabitants, Saturday night, February 8, 1690 — One of three expeditions sent against the English colonial frontiers, by Frontenac — The palisades gates left open and unguarded — Sixty settlers killed and twenty-seven captured — Midnight ride of Symon Schermerhoorn to Albany — Adam Vrooman's heroic defense of his home — Many lives spared through the intercession of Captain Johannes Sanders Glen of Scotia — Some survivors remain and start rebuilding — Letter by M. de Monseignat to Madame Maintenon, describing the raid and massacre — List of killed and prisoners. (380-399)

Chapter 26: Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley — 1690-1693.

Schenectady rebuilt after the massacre — Goods sent to the impoverished survivors — The Leisler rebellion and its turmoil in Albany and Schenectady — Fort Orange surrendered to Leisler by the Albany Convention, March 4, 1690 — Tahajadoris, the Mohawk chieftain, preaches American colonial union at Albany Council of May 3, 1690 — Expedition against Canada fails in 1690 — Schuyler strikes hard blow at New France in 1691 — Building of the Stevens house at Aal Plaats (Ael Place) in 1693 — Raids of King William's War about Albany and Schenectady, 1690-1693 — The frontier population much depleted. (400-408)

Chapter 27: 1693, French Destroy the Mohawk Castles.

Canadian French-Indian war party of 625 burn the Mohawk castles of Caughnawaga, Canagora and Tionnontogen — Midnight attack and sharp fight at Tionnontogen, the upper Mohawk castle — 300 Mohawks made prisoners — Major Schuyler pursues with Albany County militia, Mohawks and Oneidas — Battle of Saratoga — Enemy escapes — Destruction of their castles greatly weakens the Mohawks' power — Building of the Mohawk tribal castle of Og-sa-da-ga, at present Tribes Hill. (409-416)

Chapter 28: Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley, 1693-1701.

Desertion of Schenectady garrison, 1696 — Battle between deserters and militia — Frontenac destroys Onondaga and Oneida castles — End of King William's War, 1698 — Lord Bellomont, governor of New York, visits Schenectady in state, 1698 — Return of former settlers and increase in population after the war — New Mohawk castles built at present Fort Hunter, Fort Plain and Indian Castle, 1700. (417-429)

Chapter 29: Mohawk Valley and Schenectady — 1701-1713.

Queen Anne's War — Building of the Second Reformed Dutch Church of Schenectady, 1703 — Building of Queen Anne's Fort at Schenectady, 1704 — Five Mohawk chiefs accompany Colonel Peter Schuyler to London — Colonel Nicholson's expedition against Canada stopped by failure of the British-American naval expedition, 1711 — Building of Fort Hunter, 1711 — Schenectady ceases to be the frontier outpost of the province of New York — Palatines settle along the Schoharie, 1712. (430-450)

Chapter 30: A Review of Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley — 1711.

At the time of the building of Fort Hunter — Close of Queen Anne's War — Roads dwindle into paths — Scarce two thousand people along our river — Schenectady people closely related. (451-456)

Chapter 31: Migration of Palatines to America.

Migrations of 1708-1709-1710-1712 to America and New York State — Residence in London — Assistance of Queen Anne and the British government — Settlement in Ireland, North Carolina, Virginia and New Jersey — First location in the province of New York at Newburgh, in 1709 — Great migration of 3,000 Palatines to New York in 1710, and location on the Hudson River. (457-467)

Chapter 32: The Schoharie Valley.

Description of the beautiful region of the watershed of the Mohawk River, in which the Palatines settled in 1712 — Origin of the name Schoharie. (468-474)

Chapter 33: Palatines Settle Schoharie — 1712.

Settlement on the Schoharie River and at Stone Arabia — Weiser's Dorf at present Middleburgh Hartman's Dorf — Brunnen Dorf at present Schoharie — The Karighondonte tribe of Indians supply the starving settlers with corn — 1713, One hundred Palatine families from east camp on the Hudson, arrive — Early dwellings — The Schoharie Valley a part of the Mohawk watershed and connected both geographically and historically with the story of the Mohawk Valley — Palatine names. (475-484)

Chapter 34: Early Days of the Schoharie Settlement — 1712-1723.

Life of the pioneers — Nicholas Bayard driven away — Seven partners secure Schoharie lands claimed by Palatines — Murder of Truax — Sheriff Adams of Albany County mobbed and nearly killed — Delegates sent to England fail in their mission — Weiser and his friends leave Schoharie for Pennsylvania — Emigration to the Mohawk River — Dutch settle on the Schoharie. (485-495)

Chapter 35: Settlement of Stone Arabia and German Flats, 1723-1725.

Palatines settle at Stone Arabia and German Flats — Stone Arabia and Burnetsfield Patents and patentees — Spelling of names. (496-509)

Chapter 36: Mohawk Valley History from 1713 to 1744.

Events and life in the Valley in the great constructive peace period between the close of Queen Anne's War and the beginning of King George's, or the Old French War — 1727, Freedom of trade in Schenectady and the beginning of batteaux traffic on the Mohawk. (510-529)

Chapter 37: Settlement of Cherry Valley — 1740.

1740, Settlement of Cherry Valley by John Lindsay and family — A Scotch-Irish frontier village on the Susquehanna — Mohawk divide — Rev. Samuel Dunlop's Cherry Valley school — Settlement of Springfield, Mud or Summit Lake, Little Lakes, and the headwaters of the Susquehanna — The old England district. (530-533)

Chapter 38: Sir William Johnson and the Mohawk Valley — 1738-1748.

William Johnson settles in present Amsterdam, south side — Marries Catherine Weissenberg — Buys land on north side — builds Mount Johnson in the present western section of Amsterdam and removes there — Made a justice of the peace of Albany County — Adopted as a chief of the Mohawk tribe — made Colonel of militia and the Six Nations. (534-544)

Chapter 39: Battle of Beukendaal.

Schenectady militia ambushed by Canadian Indians — twenty slain, thirteen made prisoners and many wounded — Only battle of the Old French War in the Mohawk Valley. (545-547)

Chapter 40: Agriculture in Albany County — 1740-1750.

Kalm's visit to Cohoes Falls in 1749 to Colonel Johnson in 1750 — William Smith's description of Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley in 1756. (548-555)

Chapter 41: A Period of Growth and Development — 1748-1755.

Period between the old French war and the beginning of the great French and Indian War — Dispute as to first settlement in present Canajoharie village. (556-563)

Chapter 42: Battle of Lake George — 1755.

Victory of American-British army over French-Canadian-Indian army, under Baron Dieskau — Johnson's scouting party ambushed — Hendrick slain — French-Indian attack on Johnson's camp repulsed — Johnson wounded and General Lyman commands — General Johnson made a baronet and presented with 5,000 pounds by the British crown for his services in the victory of Lake George, which had heartening effect on the colonists — Mohawk Valley militia and Mohawk Indians, form detachments of General Johnson's army. (564-573)

Chapter 43: Capture of Fort Bull — 1756.

Assault on, and capture of Fort Bull, and massacre of its garrison by French-Indian war party — Building of Fort Canajoharie, Fort Hendrick, Fort Herkimer, 1756-1758. (574-580)

Chapter 44: 1757 — Massacre at German Flats.

Assault and massacre by French-Indian raiders at German Flats (Herkimer), 1757 — Attack on the Fort Herkimer neighborhood, 1758 — Fort Herkimer garrison attacks and routs invaders in a hot skirmish. (581-587)

Chapter 45: 1757 — Third Year of War.

In the fourth year of the Seven Years' War — Leads twelve hundred militia and Indians to Lake George, March 21st — At German Flats, April 1st to 9th awaiting expected attack — Fight between drunken British soldiers and Mohawks at Fort Hunter — Johnson keeps Mohawks loyal — Leads militia and Indians to succor Colonel Monro at Fort William Henry — Webb prevents aid — Massacre of Fort William Henry. (588-593)

Chapter 46: French Spy in Mohawk Valley.

1757 — French spy's description of the highway and waterway from Oswego to Albany, covering the Mohawk Valley from Wood Creek to Schenectady — account of forts, towns, population, etc. — The best review of the Mohawk River country in colonial days. (594-603)

Chapter 47: 1758 — Ticonderoga and Fort Frontenac.

1758 — Sir William Johnson in command of Indians joins Abercrombie's attack on French Fort Ticonderoga — Disastrous defeat of attacking party — Colonel Bradstreet's expedition against French Fort Frontenac through the Mohawk Valley — Fort Frontenac captured August 27th — British-American armies capture Louisburg and Fort Duquesne, which is renamed Fort Pitt. (604-608)

Chapter 48: 1759 — Gen. Johnson captures Fort Niagara.

British-American expedition against French Fort Niagara passes west through Mohawk Valley — Commanded by General John Prideaux, with General Sir William Johnson, second in command — English Fort Oswego rebuilt — French attack on Oswego repulsed — General Prideaux killed, and General Johnson succeeds to the command — Johnson's army defeats French-Indian relief force — Fort Niagara surrenders. (609-614)

Chapter 49: 1760, General Amherst Conquers Canada by Way of the Mohawk Valley.

Defeat of the British before Quebec April 27, 1760 — Amherst's plan to conquer Montreal, by way of the Mohawk, Champlain, and St. Lawrence Valleys — May 9, relief of Quebec by British fleet — Captain Fonda sent to rouse the Six Nations — June 22, General Amherst's American and British army of 10,000 moves west through the Mohawk Valley to Oswego — August 10, Amherst's army sails from Oswego — September 8, 1760, Montreal capitulates and Canada becomes the British province of Quebec — Journal of Captain Jelles Fonda, covering the Amherst expedition — Johnson's letter to Pitt — Johnson commended by King George and Sir William Pitt, premier of Great Britain. (615-625)

Chapter 50: Schenectady in Colonial Wars.

Part of an interesting chapter on the military part played in America's colonial wars by the township of Schenectady, from 1700 to 1762 — from History of Schenectady County , by Hon. Austin A. Yates. (626-629)

Chapter 51: The Mohawk Valley from 1760 to 1774.

History of Sir William Johnson and the Mohawk Valley from the close of the French and Indian war in 1760 to the beginning of the Revolution in 1775 — Sir William a great colonial leader — The Valley's greatest period of building and development — The Tory-Whig party divisions — Sir William Johnson a strong loyalist — 1755-9, Settlement of Johnstown — 1760, First settlement at Rome — Building of the churches of St. George's, Schenectady, 1762 Caughnawaga, Fonda, 1763 Fort Herkimer, 1767 Indian Castle, 1769 Palatine, 1770 St. John's, Johnstown, 1771 Schoharie, 1772-1761, Indian troubles menace the frontier — Johnson's Detroit trip produces temporary calm — Mohawks angered by land frauds — 1762, Building of Johnson Hall Sir William Johnson moves from Fort Johnson to Johnstown — 1763, Oswegatchie Indian village — 1763, Pontiac's War — 1764, Johnson holds great Indian council at Niagara — Settlement of New Petersburg, (East Schuyler) — Building of General Herkimer home — 1765, Schenectady made a borough — 1766, Kirkland a missionary at Oneida castle — 1766, Johnson holds council with Pontiac at Oswego, ending Pontiac's War — Formation of St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 4, F. and A. M., at Johnson Hall — Building of Guy Park — 1768, Great treaty of Fort Stanwix with Six Nations, settling Iroquois boundary line — 1772, Formation of Tryon County — Building of Johnstown court house and jail — 1773, First settlement of Utica — First settlement of Ephratah — 1774, Death of Sir William Johnson — 1774, Formation of St. John's Lodge, F. and A. M., No. 6, at Schenectady — 1774, August 27, formation of Palatine District Committee of Safety. (630-659)

Chapter 52: 1759 — Settlement of Johnstown and Building of Johnson Hall.

1755, Planning and settlement of Johnstown — 1762, Johnson Hall built — Sir William Johnson moves to Johnstown from Fort Johnson — Life at Johnson Hall — Johnson's progressive farming methods — His Scotch Highlander retainers — 1772, Tryon County and Johnstown its county seat — Sir William's family — John Johnson, Anna and Mary Johnson — The Tory aristocracy of Tryon County — The Butlers — Joseph and Mollie Brant, housekeeper for Sir William Johnson — The "brown lady" of Johnson Hall. (660-679)

Chapter 53: Formation of Tryon County — 1772.

The five county districts of Mohawk, Canajoharie, Palatine, German Flats, and Kingsland — Johnstown made the county seat — Court house and jail built. (680-687)

Chapter 54: 1772. Tryon County Religious Allegiance Document.

A peculiar, previously unpublished paper, swearing allegiance to George Third, on the grounds of Protestantism, as against Stuart pretensions — a seeming trick to stem the rising Whig tide along the Mohawk — signed by leading Whigs and Tories of Tryon County — Brief sketches of the signers — A final feature of colonial days, in the Mohawk Valley, and an evidence of the temporary general good feeling created by Sir William Johnson in the erection of Tryon County. (688-698)

Chapter 55: Colonial Life in the Mohawk Valley.

1772 — Mohawk Valley people and customs — Farming, social and religious life — Sports and pastimes of the days before the revolution — A Schenectady Dutch colonial dame's tea party. (699-711)

Chapter 56: 1774. Palatine District Committee Formed.

Organization of the Palatine District Committee of Safety at Louck's tavern in Stone Arabia, August 27, 1774 — Nucleus of the Tryon County Committee of Safety — Christopher P. Yates, John Frey, Isaac Paris, Jacob Klock, Peter Wagner, Andrew Fink, George Ecker, Harmanus Van Slyck, Anthony Van Vechten, Christopher W. Fox, Andrew Reber and Daniel McDougall compose the committee — Account of the first meeting from "the Colonel and the Major", by Samuel Ludlow Frey of Palatine Bridge — Lossing's account of the origin of the words, "Whig" and "Tory". (712-724)

Chapter 57: 1775, Beginnings of the Revolution in the Mohawk Valley.

Formation of the Tryon County Committee of Safety — First full meeting of the committee at Fall Hill, June 2, 1775 — Membership of the committee — Declaration of rights by the settlers of Cherry Valley and New Town Martin, July 13, 1775 — Sir John Johnson's and Colonel Guy Johnson's Tory activities — Mohawk Indian apprehensions — Patriot activities — clashes between Whigs and Tories. (725-738)

Chapter 58: 1775. Schenectady at the Beginning of the Revolution.

1775, May 6, formation of the Schenectady Township Committee of Safety — its members and early patriot activities — Fort Schenectady — The barracks and hospital — Schenectady, haven of refuge for the wounded and homeless from the ravaged Mohawk Valley to the westward — Washington's first visit to Schenectady in 1775. (739-754)

Chapter 59: 1776, Tryon County Militia Organization — Johnson, Disarmed, Flees to Canada.

General Schuyler's troops and the Tryon County Militia, under Col. Herkimer, concentrate at Caughnawaga — Review of 3000 troops, January 18, 1776 — Sir John Johnson and his Tory followers disarmed — Colonel Dayton sent to arrest Johnson, who flees to Canada with Tories — route taken through the heart of the Adirondacks — August 22, 1776, Tryon County Militia brigade organized — September 5, 1776, Col. Nicholas Herkimer commissioned brigadier-general of the Tryon County Militia by the state convention at Fishkill — Text of commission — Notable service of the Tryon County Militia — Record of Revolutionary service of militiaman George Bush — National events of 1776 — Biographical sketch of Gen. Philip Schuyler. (755-769)

Chapter 60: 1776-1777, Mohawk Valley Revolutionary Forts.

1776, Forts Schenectady, Hunter, Johnstown, Plain, Herkimer, Dayton, Stanwix — 1777, Forts Paris, Clyde, Plank Fort at Cherry Valley Upper, Middle and Lower Schoharie Forts — Forts Ehle, Kyser, Van Alstyne, Wagner, Klock, House — 1778, Fort Alden at Cherry Valley — 1781, Fort Willett. (770-785)

Chapter 61: 1777, August 6, Battle of Oriskany.

1777, Futile conference of Herkimer with Brant at Unadilla — Invasion of New York by British armies under General Burgoyne and Col. St. Leger — St. Leger moves from Oswego on Fort Stanwix which he invests, August 2 — Gen. Herkimer, at the head of the Tryon County Militia, marches to the relief of Fort — Mutinous conduct at Oriskany camp — Ambuscade and Battle of Oriskany, bloodiest conflict of the Revolution — Enemy flees, beaten after terrific five-hour fight — Willett's sortie from Fort Stanwix — Herkimer's army losses compel it to fall back down the River — General Herkimer mortally wounded — August 13, attack on the Schoharie Valley repulsed — Siege of Fort Stanwix, August 2-22 — Capt. Walter Butler, the notorious Tory, captured — General Herkimer dies August 17 — Han Yost Schuyler scares St. Leger's army into flight — August 22, Gen. Arnold's army raises siege of Fort Stanwix — Sketches of Herkimer, Gansevoort, Willett and Arnold — Diagnosis and medical description of Herkimer's case and wound by Dr. Albert Vander Veer. (786-830)

Chapter 62: 1777, August 6 — Oriskany Soldiers' Personal Experiences.

Accounts of Tryon County American soldiers of the battle of Oriskany — Material gathered by J. R. Simms from Mohawk Valley Revolutionary veterans — Thrilling incidents of this fierce forest fight — Indian atrocities, tortures and cannibalism. (831-841)

Chapter 63: The Oriskany Roster.

Roster of Tryon County Militia known to have fought at the Battle of Oriskany — A list of 457 names, as compared with 250 on the Oriskany battlefield monument. (842-849)

Chapter 64: 1777, Aug. 2-22, Siege of Fort Stanwix.

Account of the march of St. Leger's army from Oswego to Fort Stanwix and investment of the fort, by Col. Daniel Claus — Narrative of Lieutenant Colonel Marinus Willett — Diary of William Colbraith, a soldier of the garrison, from April 17 to August 22, 1777 — Making and raising of America's first battle flag — Thrilling incidents of the siege — Relief by Gen. Arnold's American brigade, August 23, 1777. (850-884)

Chapter 65: 1778 — Mohawk Valley Raids.

1778 — Indian council at Johnstown, March 9 — Manheim, Garoga, Springfield, Andrustown, German Flats raids — Battle Cobleskill, May 30, 1778 — Cherry Valley Massacre, Nov. 11, 1778. (885-901)

Chapter 66: Nov. 10, 1778 — Cherry Valley Massacre.

Gen. Hand warns Col. Alden of Brant's intended attack — Col. Alden scoffs at danger — Settlers beg for shelter in fort — Attack and massacre, on Nov. 11, by Tory and Indian raiders under Brant and Butler — 48 killed and 40 made prisoners — Hideous savagery of Tories and Indians — Fort Alden attacked nov. 11 and 12, when enemy withdraws — Valley relief force arrives too late — Capt. Warren's diary of the massacre. (902-920)

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam.

The Sullivan and Clinton expedition of 1779 against the Six Nations — General John Clinton's army marches up the Mohawk Valley from Schenectady to Canajoharie supplies and ordnance coming up the Mohawk in batteaux — Portage march, carrying over 200 batteaux on wagons, twenty miles from Canajoharie to Otsego Lake — Third, Fourth and Fifth New York Line, Fourth Pennsylvania Line, Sixth Massachusetts Line regiments, with artillery, battalion of Morgan's Riflemen, Tryon County and Schenectady Militia, wagoners and batteaux men form Clinton's portage army — Fifth New York stationed at Fort Plain fourth Pennsylvania at Middle Schoharie Fort Sixth Massachusetts at Fort Alden, Cherry Valley — Clinton's advance party leaves Schenectady, for Canajoharie, June 11, 1779 where Clinton camps with Third New York and Fourth Pennsylvania — Two Tory spies captured and hung there — Portage march begins June 18, 1779 — Fifth New York, forming right wing, goes over Otsquago trail — Third New York and Fourth Pennsylvania, forming center, guard supply and batteaux wagons over portage road — Fourth New York, forming left wing, moves over Cherry Valley road — Camps on the march — General Clinton reaches Otsego, July 2 — Clinton's American army celebrates third Independence Day anniversary at present Cooperstown, on Otsego Lake, July 4, 1779 — Dam built at Otsego Lake outlet — August 9, 1779, Clinton's army, with 200 batteaux, moves down the Susquehanna — August 22, Clinton joins Sullivan — August 29, Battle of Elmira won by Americans over Indians and Tories — Iroquois country ravaged — Mohawks removed from their Canajoharie and Ticonderoga castles to Albany — Chronological summary of Clinton's march, one of the greatest feats of arms during the Revolutionary War. (921-954)


Bran Castle

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Bran Castle, Romanian Castelul Bran, medieval stronghold in the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathian Mountains) of Brașov county, central Romania. Popularly—if inaccurately—identified with the fictional Castle Dracula, Bran Castle is one of Romania’s top tourist attractions.

The first known fortress near Bran Pass (now called Rucăr-Bran Pass), a trade route across the Carpathian Mountains, was erected after 1211 by knights of the Teutonic Order but was held only briefly. In 1377 King Louis I of Hungary authorized the Transylvanian Saxons of the Brașov region to build a castle as a bulwark against northward expansion of the Ottoman Empire. The castle was completed by 1388 it also served as a customs house for Transylvania, then a voivodate (province) of Hungary. In the early 15th century, King Sigismund of Hungary temporarily handed over possession of the castle to Prince Mircea the Old of Walachia, an adjoining territory that was being menaced by the Ottoman Turks. In 1441 János Hunyadi, voivode (governor) of Transylvania, defeated an Ottoman army at the castle.

In 1498 the Transylvanian Saxons of Brașov bought the castle from King Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary, and they continued to hold it even after the conquest of the Hungarian capital by the Ottoman sultan Süleyman the Magnificent in 1541. During the 1620s the Transylvanian prince Gábor Bethlen made extensive modifications and fortifications. The house of Habsburg gained control of the region in 1687, but the castle remained in Transylvanian hands, as confirmed by the Diploma Leopoldinum, a decree issued in 1690. Under local control, the castle was restored several times for service as a fortress, most recently in the 1880s, but it fell into disrepair thereafter.

In 1920 the city of Brașov turned Bran Castle over to Queen Marie of Greater Romania, who restored the castle as a royal summer residence and lived there both before and after the death, in 1927, of her husband, King Ferdinand I. She also built the castle’s principal modern outbuilding, the Tea House, which later became a restaurant. Marie died in 1938, and her daughter, Princess Ileana, was forced out of the country by the new communist regime in 1948. The communists opened the castle to the public as a museum in 1956. Ileana died in 1991, and the postcommunist Romanian government handed over the castle to her son, Archduke Dominic of Habsburg, in 2009. The castle continued to operate as a museum.

Bran Castle is often associated with the fictional vampire Count Dracula. The Romanian castle resembles Castle Dracula, as described in Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula (1897), in that both stand on rocky precipices and command spectacular views. But Stoker, an Irish writer, is not known to have ever visited Transylvania. Moreover, Vlad the Impaler (Vlad III Dracula), the historical personage most closely identified with Stoker’s Dracula, never ruled Bran Castle, although some sources claim that he was held prisoner there for two months. Vlad, grandson of Mircea the Old, was a 15th-century voivode of Walachia.


Castles in Scotland

Aberdour Castle, Aberdour, Fife
Owned by: Historic Scotland
One of Scotland's oldest castles. Venue for hire only.
Abergeldie Castle, Abergeldie, Grampian
Owned by: Gordon family
16th century tower house.
Ardvreck Castle, Inchnadamph, Highlands
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Remains of 16th century castle thought to have been constructed by the Clan MacLeod. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Auchindoun Castle, Dufftown, Moray, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 15th century tower castle within the earthworks of an Iron Age hillfort, believed to have been built by Thomas Cochrane. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire
Owned by: British Royal Family
Scottish residence of the British Royal Family. Although the original Balmoral Castle dated from the 15th century, this building was considered too small when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert fell in love with the region and people during a visit to the Scottish Highlands. Prince Albert set about organising the design of the current castle and grounds when the Royal Family purchased the estate in 1852. Construction of the new castle started during the summer 0f 1853, on a site just 100 yards from the original building. The new royal residence was completed in 1856, and the old castle was demolished. The couple spent many weeks each year relaxing at their new home in Highlands, and after Albert's death, Victoria spent up to 4 months each year at Balmoral. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Balvaird Castle, Newton of Balcanquhal, Perthshire
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Complete example of a traditional late medieval Scottish tower house. Free and open access at any reasonable time to site limited access to tower house.
Balvenie Castle, Dufftown, Moray, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 12th century castle with massive curtain wall, seat of the Black Comyns. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Beldorney Castle, Dumeath, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Robinson family
Restored 16th century tower house, probably built by George Gordon, the first Laird of Beldorney. Only occasionally open to the public, as privately owned.
Blackness Castle, Blackness, Linlithgow, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Well preserved 15th-century fortress on the south shore of the Firth of Forth. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Blair Castle, Perthshire
Owned by: Duke of Atholl
Complete medieval castle, remodelled in a Scottish Baronial style in the 19th century. Commanding a strategic position on the main route through the central Scottish Highland, Blair Castle is said to have been started by John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, around 1269. In the centuries that followed, the castle changed hands several times until 1629, when it became the seat of the Clan Murray. As supporters of the Royalist cause, the castle was attacked and taken by Oliver Cromwell's Parliamentarian Army in 1650. Attacked and besieged again during the Jacobite rising of 1745, the starving defenders were only relieved when the Jacobite forces withdrew to fight British Government forces at the Batlle of Culloden. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Borve Castle, Benbecula, Western Isles, Highlands
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Ruins of late 14th century tower house, occupied by the Macdonalds of Benbecula until the early 17th century. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Bothwell Castle, Uddingston, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Impressive remains of large medieval castle. One of Scotland's largest and finest 13th century castles, set on a high steep bank commanding the River Clyde. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Braemar Castle, Aberdeenshire
Owned by: Clan Farquharson
Largely restored 17th century castle. Originally built in 1628 by John Erskine, Earl of Mar, as a hunting lodge, the castle was attacked and burned by John Farquharson, the Black Colonel of Inverey in 1689. Following the quashing of the Jacobite Rebellion at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, the castle was rebuilt and became a garrison for Hanovarian troops. When government forces were withdrawn in 1831, the castle was returned to the Farquharson clan. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Brodie Castle, Moray
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
Well preserved 16th century castle keep. Built in 1567 by the Clan Brodie, the castle was destroyed by fire in 1645 by members of the Clan Gordon during the Scottish Civil War. It was expanded into a mansion house in the Scots Baronial style in 1824 and continued as the Brodie family home until Ninian Brodie of Brodie died in 2003. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Broughty Castle, Broughty Ferry, Angus
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Intact late 15th century coastal defensive castle, built in response to increased English naval activity in the area. The castle now houses a museum, with restricted opening times and entrance charges.
Burleigh Castle, Milnaththort, Perthshire
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Almost complete late 15th century tower house, extended in the 16th century with the addition of a curtain wall and tower. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Cadzow Castle, Chatelherault Country Park, Hamilton, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 16th century castle where Mary, Queen of Scots stayed following her escape from Loch Leven Castle in 1568. In the grounds of Chatelherault Country Park, with free and open access at any reasonable time.
Caerlaverock Castle, Glencaple, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Impressive and well preserved moated triangular castle, built in the 13th century. Due to its border location, Caerlaverock was besieged several times by the English. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Cairnbulg Castle, Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Fraser family
Intact 13th century fortified tower house, built at a time when this area of north east Scotland was under constant threat from Viking attack. Now a private home and not generally open to visitors.
Caisteal Bheagram, Drimsdale, South Uist, Western Isles
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Remains of small fortified tower, dating from the late 15th century. A small fortified tower built by Clanranald on a small island in the centre of Loch an Eilean. Dating from around 1600, the two-storey tower was connected by a causeway to the southern bank of the loch. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Cardoness Castle, Gatehouse of Fleet, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Substantial remains of 15th century six-storey tower house with commanding views over Fleet Bay. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Carnasserie Castle, Kilmartin, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 16th century tower house and hall, built by reforming churchman John Carswell, Rector of Kilmartin. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Carsluith Castle, Creetown, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of lightly defended 16th century tower house the lairds of Carsluith at the time were members of the Cairns family. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Castle Campbell, Dollar, Stirlingshire
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Imposing remains of 15th century tower house with later additions. Originally the property of the Clan Stuart, it passed by marriage to Colin Campbell, who had the name changed to Castle Campbell by an Act of Parliament in 1489. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Castle Fraser, Aberdeenshire
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
One of the grandest of the Scottish baronial tower houses. Started in 1575 by the 6th Laird of Fraser, the castle was completed in 1636. The ancestral home of the Fraser family, it was modernised in a classic style in the late 18th century and today stands as one of the grandest Castles of Mar. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Castle Menzies, Perthshire
Owned by: Menzies Charitable Trust
Intact 16th century Scottish castle. The seat of the Chiefs of Clan Menzies for over 400 years, this 16th century fortified house was formerly known as Weem Castle. Bonnie Prince Charlie rested at the castle on his way to the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Just four days later it was garrisoned by the Duke of Cumberland, son of the British monarch and commander of the victorious Government forces. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Castle of Old Wick, Wick, Highlands
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 12th century Norse castle, possibly built by the great Earl Harald Maddadson, half-Orcadian and half-Scottish, who was at that time the sole earl of Orkney and Caithness. One of the oldest castles in Scotland, it was built at a time when the kings of Norway ruled this area of the Scottish mainland as well as the Northern and Western Isles. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Castle Stalker, Portnacroish, Strathclyde
Owned by: Allward family
Well preserved remains of 14th century four-storey tower house, or keep, set on a tidal islet on Loch Laich. King James IV frequently stayed at the castle on his hunting and hawking trips to the area. A privately owned castle with limited tours by arrangement.
Castle Sween, Lochgilphead, Argyll and Bute
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 12th century castle, one of the earliest stone castles built in Scotland. Built by the Clan Suibhne (pronounced Sween), the castle changed hands many times during the medieval period. Free and open access at any reasonable time.
Castle Tioram, Moidart, Highlands
Owned by: Anta Estates
A ruined 14th century castle that sits on the tidal island of Eilean Tioram in Loch Moidart. The seat of Clanranald, part of the MacDonald clan, Tioram was an important power base in medieval times. Now in a poor state of repair and currently closed to the public for safety reasons.
Cawdor Castle, Highlands
Owned by: Cawdor family
Intact 15th century tower house with later additions. Built around a 15th century tower house or keep, the current castle has evolved over 600 years with substantial additions from the 17th century. The medieval tower was built as a private fortress by William Calder, 6th Thane of Cawdor (orig. Calder) in 1454. Although Shakespeare's Macbeth is titled Thane of Cawdor, the current castle was built centuries after the life of the 11th century King Macbeth. Restricted summer opening times and entrance charges apply.
Claypotts Castle, Broughty Ferry, Angus
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Intact 16th century Scottish tower house, originally built by John Strachan between 1569 and 1588 and later owned by 'Bonnie Dundee', John Graham of Claverhouse. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time, external viewing only.
Corgarff Castle, Corgarff, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Medieval tower house, built in the mid-16th century by John Forbes of Towie. The Forbes clan maintained a long and bloody feud with Clan Gordon, which in November 1571 culminated in the Congarff Massacre. With their menfolk away, the castle was torched by members of Clan Gordon as a result 24 Forbes women and children perished. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Coulter Motte, Wolfclyde, Lanarkshire, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Earthwork remains of 12th century Norman motte, common to this area after Malcolm IV granted land in Clydesdale to Flemish newcomers. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Craigievar Castle, Alford, Grampian
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
Intact 17th century Scottish Baronial castle. Completed in 1626 by the Aberdonian merchant William Forbes, brother of the Bishop of Aberdeen, this great seven-storey castle is an excellent example of Scottish Baronial architecture. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Craigmillar Castle, Edinburgh, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of medieval castle. Begun in the late 14th century by the Preston family and extended throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. Mary, Queen of Scots Mary visited Craigmillar in November 1566 to convalesce following the birth of her son, the future James I of England. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Craignethan Castle, Crossford, Lanarkshire, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of early 16th century artillery fortification. Possibly the last great private military castle to be built in Scotland, Craignethan is a fine example of an early artillery fortress. Built in the first half of the 16th century, it is based around a tower house built by Sir James Hamilton of Finnart. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Crathes Castle, Aberdeenshire
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
Intact and well preserved 16th century Scottish castle. Started in 1553, construction was delayed due to political issues surrounding the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the castle was not completed until 1596. Crathes served as the ancestral seat of the Burnetts of Ley for over 350 years, until gifted to the NTS in 1951. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Crichton Castle, Crichton, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of late 14th century tower house. Originally built as a tower house in the late 14th century by John de Crichton as his family residence, it later became home to the Earls of Bothwell who added the stunning 16th century courtyard facade. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Crookston Castle, Pollok, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 15th-century castle set within 12th-century earthworks. Built on a much earlier fortified site, this new massive tower house was started around 1390. This unusual property consists of a central tower with four square corner towers, set within 12th-century earthworks. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Cubbie Row's Castle, Wyre, Orkney
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of early stone Norse castle. One of the earliest stone castles in Scotland, built around 1145 by the Norseman Kolbein Hruga, the site includes a small rectangular tower enclosed within a circular ditch. A ruined chapel dating from the late 12th century also occupies the site, which is located on the island of Wyre and can be reached using Orkney Ferries Ltd from Kirkwall. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Culzean Castle, Ayrshire
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
Refurbished 18th century castle. Built between 1777 and 1792, Culzean is the former home of the Marquess of Ailsa, the chief of the Clan Kennedy. In 1945 the family gifted the castle to the NTS. A condition of the gift stipulated that the top floor apartment was made available to General Dwight D Eisenhower, in recognition of his role during World War Two. The general stayed at Culzean on four occasions, including once when President of the United States. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Delgatie Castle, Turriff, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Delgatie Castle Trust
This 11th century fortress has been home to the Hay Clan for the last 650 years. The earliest castle at Delgatie dates from around 1030, with much of the current structure the result of rebuilding in the late 16th century and mid-18th century. Mary, Queen of Scots stayed in the castle for three days in 1562 following the Battle of Corrichie. Now open to the public and offering self-catering accommodation sleeping up to 5 people in the elegant Symbister Suite, located in the north wing of the castle.
Dirleton Castle, Dirleton, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of medieval fortress. Started around 1240 by John De Vaux, this substantial fortresses residence was badly damaged during the Wars of Scottish Independence, when it was twice taken by the English. Rebuilt and reinforced, the castle was again damaged during Cromwell's siege of 1650 it was then left to decay. Its fortunes were revived in the 1660s when the Nisbet family built a new mansion close to the picturesque ruins. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Doune Castle, Doune, Stirling
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of late 14th century courtyard castle. Originally built in the 13th century, it was damaged during the Scottish Wars of Independence before being rebuilt in the late 14th century by Robert Stewart, the son of King Robert II of Scotland. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Druchtag Motte, Mochrum, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Earthwork remains of 12th century Norman motte, common to this area and one of over sixty similar mottes throughout Dumfries and Galloway. It appears that the wooden fortification that stood atop was never converted to a stone one, as many Norman castles were. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Drum Castle, Aberdeenshire
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
Intact 13th century square tower and Jacobean mansion. One of the oldest tower houses in Scotland, the castle and grounds were granted to William de Irwyn by Robert the Bruce in 1325. The original tower was transformed in 1619 when the then laird, Alexander Irvine added the Jacobean mansion. The castle was attacked and occupied several times during the Civil Wars of the 1600's. Despite backing the losing side in both Jacobite uprisings, Drum remained the seat of the chief of the Clan Irvine until 1975. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Drumcoltran Tower, Dalbeattie, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Well preserved late 16th century tower house, still standing three storeys high. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Drumin Castle, Glenlivet, Moray, Grampian
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Remains of 14th century tower house, once home to King Robert II's son, Alexander Stewart, aka the 'Wolf of Badenoch', who was noted for his mild temper and sense of justice, and best remembered for the sacking and burning of Elgin Cathedral in 1390 as part of his long term feud with the Bishop of Moray. The castle was abandoned in the 18th century and fell into disrepair. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Duart Castle, Isle of Mull
Owned by: Sir Lachlan Maclean
Largely restored 13th century castle. As featured in the Disney movie 'Brave', this 13th century castle occupies one of the most spectacular sites in Scotland. Set high on a rocky crag jutting out into the Sound of Mull, in 1350 Duart was gifted to Lachlan Maclean as a dowry when he married Mary Macdonald, the daughter of the Lord of the Isles. The ancestral home of the Clan Maclean, in 1691 the castle surrendered to the government forces of the Duke of Argyll. By 1751 the castle had been abandoned and remained in a ruinous state until 1910, when it was purchased by Sir Fitzroy Maclean, the 26th chief, who began the task of restoring it to its present condition. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Duffus Castle, Duffus, Moray, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
The original Norman motte and bailey fortress comprised an impressive earthwork mound surrounded by a timber palisade the wooden keep was later rebuilt in stone. The castle was built around 1150 by a Flemish knight named Freskin de Moravia, the name was later adapted into the more familiar Moray. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Dumbarton Castle, Dumbarton, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Mainly 18th century artillery fortifications. Impressively set on a volcanic rock overlooking the Firth of Clyde, Dumbarton was the centre of the ancient kingdom of Strathclyde from the 5th century. Most of the existing structures however, date from the 18th century with substantial new artillery fortifications. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Dundonald Castle, Dundonald, Ayrshire
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of imposing royal castle dating from 14th century. This imposing medieval castle was built by Robert II in the 1371 to mark his succession to the throne of Scotland and was used as a royal residence by the early Stewart kings for the next 150 years. Restricted summer opening times and entrance charges apply, details from the visitor centre and museum.
Dunnideer Castle, Insch, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
The ruins of a 13th century castle set within the ramparts of an Iron Age hillfort that shows evidence of burning. The earthen defences are easily visible and comprise a series of high banks and ditches. The medieval stone tower is built using stones from the vitrified fort. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Dunnottar Castle, Nr Stonehaven, Grampian
Owned by: Dunecht Estates
Remains of medieval fortress from of the 15th and 16th centuries. The surviving buildings of this impressive ruined medieval fortress date mainly from the 15th and 16th centuries however the site is believed to have been fortified from the early Middle Ages. Due to its strategic location, Dunnottar has played a prominent role throughout Scotland's history, but is perhaps best known as the place where the Honours of Scotland, the Scottish crown jewels, were hidden from Oliver Cromwell's invading army during the 17th century. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Dunskey Castle, Portpatrick, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Remains of 16th century tower house on the site of a 14th century castle. Although the site appears to have been fortified since the Iron Age, the current tower house was built after the medieval castle burned down in the early 16th century following a local skirmish. Standing high at the head of a rocky promontory, the new castle was not occupied for long, being described as ruinous as early as 1684. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Dunrobin Castle, Highlands
Owned by: Lord Strathnaver
Intact Scottish Baronial style castle, encompassing earlier fortifications. The ancient seat of the Clan Sutherland, the lands of Sutherland were first acquired by Hugh, Lord of Duffus around 1211. The first mention of a castle on the site dates from 1401, a square keep set atop a cliff surrounded by a curtain wall. One of the most powerful families in Scotland, the Earldom of Sutherland was created in 1235. Besieged twice in 1518, the castle was also stormed during the Jacobite Rising of 1745, as the Clan Sutherland supported the British government. The early castle was extended and remodelled from the 16th century onwards, and was finally transformed from defensive structure into a house in the Scottish Baronial style in 1845. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Dunstaffnage Castle, Oban, Argyll and Bute, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Partially ruined 13th century castle. On a huge rock overlooking the Firth of Lorn, the castle was built as the stronghold of the Clan MacDougall. One of Scotland's oldest stone castles with a huge curtain wall, it was captured by Robert the Bruce in 1309 and remained in royal possession for some years after. In 1746 Dunstaffnage became the temporary prison of Flora MacDonald. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Duntulm Castle, Isle of Skye
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Remains of 14th and 15th century castle. Set on a sheer cliff with views across to the Isle of Lewis, Duntulm was built between the 14th and 15th centuries, at a time of great feuding between the rival clans of Macleod and Macdonald. By the early 17th century the Macdonalds had established supremacy in the area and the castle was extended. Duntulm was finally abandoned when the clan chief Sir Alexander Macdonald built a new home a few miles to the south. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Dunvegan Castle, Isle of Skye
Owned by: The Clan MacLeod
Beginning its life in the 1200's as a simple masonry wall surrounding a former Norse fort, most of the current Dunvegan Castle was constructed in the mid 14th century by Malcolm MacLeod and has been home of the Clan MacLeod ever since. Dunvegan is famous for being the oldest continuously inhabited castle in Scotland.
Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Lothian
Owned by: Scottish Government
The most important royal fortress in the Kingdom of Scotland. Although the site has been occupied since 900BC, the current royal castle dates from the reign of King David I in the 12th century. The castle continued in use as a royal residence until the Union of the Crowns in 1603. As the most important fortress in the Kingdom of Scotland, Edinburgh has been involved in many conflicts through the ages, from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century to the Jacobite Rising of 1745. Today, the castle is the setting for Edinburgh's famous military tattoo and houses the Honours of Scotland, the Scottish National War Memorial, the Stone of Destiny and is Scotland's most visited tourist attraction. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Edzell Castle, Edzell, Angus
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of late medieval tower house with 17th century walled garden. Started around 1520 by David Lindsay, 9th Earl of Crawford, the castle was expanded by his son. More of a country house than a defensive structure, it was briefly occupied by English troops during Oliver Cromwell's invasion of Scotland in 1651. Today, the castle consists of the remains of the original tower house with an adjacent Renaissance walled garden. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Eilean Donan Castle, Dornie, Kyle of Lochalsh, Highlands
Owned by: Conchra Charitable Trust
Spectacularly sited reconstructed Medieval castle. Sited on an island, connected by a causeway to the mainland at the head of Loch Duich, the first fortified castle was constructed in the mid-13th century and stood guard over the lands of Kintail. Built and re-built over the centuries following various raids and sieges, the castle was partially destroyed in a Jacobite uprising in 1719. Eilean Donan lay in ruins until being authentically reconstructed to its medieval state in the mid 1900s by Lieutenant Colonel John MacRae-Gilstrap. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Elcho Castle, Elcho, Perthshire, Tayside
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Almost complete, this 16th century fortified mansion is located just a short distance from the south bank of the River Tay. Built on the site of an earlier structure, the tower house was started around 1560 and remains one of the best surviving examples of its type in Scotland. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Fast Castle, Coldingham, Borders
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Dramatically sited remains of medieval fortress. Situated on a dramatic rocky promontory, the current castle predates 1346, when documents suggest that it was occupied by English troops following the Battle of Neville's Cross. In 1503 Margaret Tudor, daughter of the English King Henry VII, stayed overnight at the castle on her way to Edinburgh for her marriage with James IV of Scotland. Destroyed in 1515 and rebuilt again in 1521, the castle changed hands several times through the rest of the 16th century. It fell into disrepair shortly after this. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Fa'side Castle, East Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Intact 15th century keep. Also known as Fawside and Faside, the Fawsyde family acquired the land in 1371 and began building the castle in the 15th century. Burned by the English in 1547, Mary, Queens of Scots stayed at Fa'side before the Battle of Carberry Hill in June 1567. Now under private ownership with restricted access.
Findlater Castle, Cullen, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Dramatically sited remains of medieval castle. Overlooking the Moray Firth, the first reference to the castle dates from 1246. Later in the 1260s King Alexander III of Scotland readied the castle for an invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway. Although Vikings occupied the castle for a period, the current remains date from the 14th century when it was remodelled and rebuilt. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Fyvie Castle, Turriff, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: National Trust for Scotland
Intact and impressive Scottish baronial castle with Edwardian interiors. Although the earliest parts of the castle date from the 13th century, each of five successive family owners - Preston, Meldrum, Seton, Gordon and Leith - contributed a new tower. The earliest of these, the Preston tower, dates from around 1400 whilst the Leith tower was added as late as 1890. The Edwardian interiors contain a superb collection of arms and paintings. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Glamis Castle, Angus
Owned by: Earl of Strathmore
Intact 17th century castle, childhood home of the late HM Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother. Glamis has been the home of the Lyon family since the 14th century. Originally a royal hunting lodge, in 1034 King Malcolm II of Scotland was murdered at Glamis. The first castle was built at Glamis by Sir John Lyon around 1376 the present structure however dates mainly from the 17th century. Although Shakespeare mentions Glamis as the home as Macbeth, there is no evidence to link the king with the castle. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Glenbuchat Castle, Glenkindie, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Well preserved remains of 16th century tower house. Set above the River Don, this tower house was built in 1590 for John Gordon of Cairnbarrow to mark his wedding to Helen Carnegie. The family sold the castle in 1738 after which it fell into disrepair, and by the Victorian period it was roofless. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Greenknowe Tower, Gordon, Borders
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 16th century tower house. Built in 1581 by James Seton, the tower stands on a natural mound, which was defended by low lying marshy ground. In the 17th century, the castle was sold to the Pringles of Stichill who modernised the building to suit the less dangerous times. The castle remained occupied until the mid-19th century. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Gylen Castle, near Oban
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
Remains of 16th century castle. Dramatically set high on a rocky outcrop overlooking the Firth of Lorne, Gylen was built in 1582 by the Clan MacDougall. Located on the southern part of the island, the castle was in use for only a short period as it was besieged and destroyed by the Covenanters in 1647, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Hailes Castle, East Linton, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Substantial remains of a 13th century fortified manor house, extended in the 14th and 15th centuries. Enjoying a fine riverside setting, the castle was originally constructed as a fortified tower house by Hugo de Gourlay sometime before 1300, making it one of the oldest stone structures of its type in Scotland. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Hermitage Castle, Liddesdale, Borders
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Semi-ruined substantial 14th and 15th century fortress. With a reputation, both from its history and its appearance, as one of the most sinister and atmospheric castles in Scotland, this substantial 14th and 15th century ruin was once known as the guardhouse of the bloodiest valley in Britain. Mary, Queen of Scots made a famous marathon journey to visit the wounded Bothwell at Hermitage, only a few weeks after the birth of her son. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Huntingtower Castle, Perth, Tayside
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of two complete tower houses. Once known as The House of Ruthven, Huntingtower Castle comprises two complete tower houses, one 15th century, the other 16th century both towers are connected by a 17th century range. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Huntly Castle, Huntly, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of medieval castle. Strategically sited at the confluence of the rivers Bogie and Deveron, the castle was gifted to Sir Adam Gordon by King Robert I (the Bruce), as reward for his faithful service. With the majority of the Clan Gordon away on the king's business, the castle was razed to the ground in 1452 by forces of the powerful Black Douglases. A grander castle quickly replaced the burnt out remains, which was again extensively remodelled it in the 1550s by George 'Cock o' the North' Gordon. It was the Civil War that brought an end to the Gordon family's long occupation of the castle they again sided with the king! Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Inverness Castle, Highlands
Owned by: Scottish government
Intact 19th century neo-Norman structure. Although a succession of castles has stood on this site since 1057, the current red sandstone structure was built in 1836, and now houses the Sheriff Court. The castle is not open to the public however the grounds are freely accessible.
Inverlochy Old Castle, Fort William, Highlands
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 13th century castle. Built around 1275 by John the Black Comyn, chief of the Clan Comyn. When Robert the Bruce succeeded to the Scottish throne in 1306, the Comyns, his rivals for the crown, were dispossessed and the castle was left unoccupied for a short period. The site of two battles, the castle remains largely unchanged since its construction and is one of Scotland's oldest stone fortresses. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Inverurie Bass, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
This 12th century Norman motte and bailey fortification, standing within a later burial ground beside the confluence of the Rivers Don and Uri, is one of only a handful to be found in north east Scotland. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Kilchurn Castle, Loch Awe, Dalmally, Argyll and Bute
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 15th - 17th century castle. The ancestral home of the Campbells of Glen Orchy, Kilchurn was built in about 1450 as a five storey tower house with an outer wall. Further buildings were added during the 16th and 17th centuries. Set on a small island in Loch Awe, the castle would have been accessed by a low-lying causeway. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time during summer months.
Kildrummy Castle, Alford, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of extensive 13th century castle. The stronghold of the Earls of Mar, Kildrummy was built in the mid-13th century and endured numerous sieges through the ages. The first in 1306 led to the capture of Robert the Bruce's wife and daughter. The 12 year old Lady Marjorie was imprisoned in the Tower of London, locked in a cage and forbidden to speak. Although held as a royal castle for a brief period, the castle was abandoned in 1716 following the failure of the Jacobite rebellion. Now ruined, it remains a fine example of a 13th century castle with its curtain wall, four round towers, hall and chapel. Restricted summer opening times and entrance charges apply.
Kinnairdy Castle, Aberchirder, Grampian
Owned by: Innes family
Intact medieval castle and 15th century tower house, originally built as a motte and bailey fortification with a stone keep atop the motte. A six storey tower was added early in 15th century and sometime after 1500 the east wing was added. Around 1725 the top two storeys of the tower were removed to give the castle its current look. Privately owned, it is not normally open to the public.
Kisimul Castle, Castlebay, Barra, Western Isles
Owned by: Historic Scotland
This small medieval castle stands in the centre of Castlebay on Barra, an island in the Outer Hebrides. The earliest mention of Kisimul dates from the mid-16th century. The castle takes its name from the Gaelic ciosamul, or 'castle island'. Seat of the Chiefs of Clan Macneil. Restricted summer opening times and entrance charges apply.
Lauriston Castle, Edinburgh
Owned by: City of Edinburgh
Intact 16th century tower house. Overlooking the Firth of Forth, a castle has stood on this site since medieval times. The current tower house was built around 1590 by Sir Archibald Napier, master of the Scottish mint. Lauriston was extended in the Jacobean style by Thomas Allan in 1827. The grounds now operate as a local park, with restricted summer opening times and entrance charges to the castle.
Lews Castle, Isle of Lewis
Owned by: Comhairle nan Eilean Siar
Intact Victorian era castle. Having purchased the whole island a few years earlier with his fortune gained from the Chinese opium trade, Sir James Matheson had this Victorian-era castle built between 1847-57 as his new island residence. The industrialist Lord Leverhulme bought the estate in 1918 and gifted the castle to the people of Stornoway in 1923. The castle is currently undergoing refurbishment, and is due to re-open as a museum and cultural centre shortly.
Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
One of the principal residences of the Stewart kings and queens throughout the 15th and 16th centuries both James V and Mary Queen of Scots were born at Linlithgow. Once Scotland's monarchs left for England in 1603, the palace was little used and was burned out in 1746. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Loch Doon Castle, Craigmalloch, Ayrshire, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of a transplanted 13th century castle. Originally located on an island within Loch Doon, this 13th century castle was dismantled and rebuilt on the side of the loch after the water level was raised in the 1930s for a hydroelectric scheme. The castle consists of an eleven-sided curtain wall of substantial height. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Lochleven Castle, Kinross, Tayside
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of medieval castle on an island. Built around 1250 on an island in Loch Leven, the castle occupies a strategically important position between Edinburgh, Stirling and Perth. Heavily involved in the Wars of Scottish Indepence, the castle was besieged and fought over several times between 1296 and 1357. Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned at the castle between 1567 and 1568. During this time she was forced to abdicate as queen in favour of her son James. With the help of her gaoler, William Douglas, Mary escaped and fled to nearby Niddy Castle. Loch Leven is just one of many castles said to be haunted by Mary's spirit. With restricted summer opening times, the castle is accessible by ferry, entrance charges apply.
Lochmaben Castle, Lochmaben, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Originally built by the English in the 14th century, the castle was extensively rebuilt around 1500 during the reign of James IV. Lochmaben was largely dismantled after it's capture by James VI in 1588. The extensive earthworks built by Edward I of England are clearly visible surrounding the castle remains. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Lochranza Castle, Lochranza, Isle of Arran, Ayrshire
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 12th century tower house with later additions. Standing on a narrow stretch of land on the southern shore of Loch Ranza, the first castle on the site was erected in the late 13th century as a rectangular tower house. Sometime in the late 16th century the castle was enlarged and strengthened. Briefly occupied by troops under James VI in 1614, and later in the 1650s it was used by Oliver Cromwell. The castle fell into disuse and was abandoned during the 18th century. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time during the summer months.
MacLellan's Castle, Kirkudbright, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Well preserved remains of late 16th century noble residence. Standing at the top of the main street in Kirkcudbright, this castellated town house was built in the 1570s on the site of the medieval Greyfriars convent. Founded in 1449 by James II, Greyfriars was dissolved in the Reformation. The architecture of the castle demonstrates how design had evolved from the heavily defended tower to a new, more domestic house. Restricted summer opening times and entrance charges apply.
Mey Castle, Thurso, Caithness
Owned by: The Queen Elizabeth Castle of Mey Trust
Former home of the late HM Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother. Built by the Earl of Caithness between 1566 and 1572, originally as a three storey tower house. Mey is the former home of the late HM Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, who bought what was then Barrogill Castle in 1952 while mourning the death of her husband, King George VI. Having acquired the most northerly inhabited castle on the British mainland, The Queen Mother spent the next 50 years renovating and restoring it. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply to both the castle and garden.
Morton Castle, Carronbridge, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of late 13th century hall house. Standing on a triangular headland with Morton Loch on two sides, the remains of an earlier 13th century castle were rebuilt in the 15th century as an impressive hall-house. Morton was sacked by James VI in 1588 in his efforts to stem the power of the Douglases. Only partly reoccupied after this, the castle had been abandoned by the start of the 18th century. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Muness Castle, Island of Unst, Shetland
Owned by: Historic Scotland
This late 16th century tower house is the northernmost castle in the British Isles. Muness was built by Laurence Bruce, who according to records of the day was a particularly nasty and corrupt piece of work. In 1627 French raiders attacked and burned the castle although repaired, it appears to have been abandoned by the end of the century. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Neidpath Castle, Peebles, Borders
Owned by: English Heritage
Originally built by Sir William de Haya in the late 14th century, the castle was remodelled and added to during the 1660s. Today Neidpath is an intact tall tower house with rounded corners, battlements and a pit dungeon. The castle is not open to the public, except by arrangement.
Newark Castle, Port Glasgow, Port Glasgow, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Well preserved 15th century castle. Standing on the south shore of the River Clyde, as far upriver as was navigable for seagoing ships, the castle was built in 1478 by George Maxwell. The original design included a tower house within a walled enclosure. In the late 16th century the castle was inherited by Sir Patrick Maxwell, who remodelled the building constructing a three storey Renaissance mansion. A powerful friend of King James VI of Scotland, Sir Patrick was notorious for murdering two members of a rival family and beating his wife of 44 years, mother of his 16 children. Restricted summer opening times and entrance charges apply.
Noltland Castle, Pierowall, Isle of Westray, Orkney
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 16th century tower house. Built by Gilbert Balfour between 1560 and 1573, the castle comprised a rectangular main block with towers at opposite corners. Balfour was Master of the Royal Household to Mary, Queen of Scots. In 1650 during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Royalist officers occupied the castle after their defeat at the Battle of Carbisdale. Later local Covenanters captured and burned the castle. By 1881 it was described as a ruin. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Orchardton Tower, Castle Douglas, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
This well preserved 15th century building is remarkable by being the only cylindrical tower house in Scotland. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Ormacleit Castle, South Uist, Western Isles
Owned by: Scheduled Ancient Monument
More of a fortified manor than a castle, building began around 1701 by Allan MacDonald, the chief of Clan Ranald, on the site of an earlier 16th century house. French architects were brought over to supervise the work, and by 1707 Ormacleit was occupied. Shortly after it was finished, on the eve of the Battle of Sheriffmuir in November 1715, the castle burned down. MacDonald died in the ensuing battle and the castle was never rebuilt, as the Clan Ranald seat moved to Nunton on nearby Benbecula. Standing on a private farm, the castle is not open to the public although it is visible from the road.
Peel Ring Of Lumphanan, Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
This present earthwork dates from the 13th century date and was the site of a fortified residence of the Durward family. The peel consists of a motte or mound, surrounded by two concentric ditches and a bank. An earlier motte on this site is thought to have existed when the Battle of Lumphanan was fought in 1057, between King Macbeth and the future King Malcolm III. Macbeth's Stone, upon which the king is said to have been beheaded, is located nearby. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Pitsligo Castle, Rosehearty, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Pitsligo Castle Trust
Built around 1424 by the Fraser family of Philorth, the ownership of the tower later passed to the Forbes family of Druminnor who extended the castle to its current layout. In 1745, the castle suffered after the Battle of Culloden and was pillaged by Hanoverian troops. By the end of the 19th century it was in ruin. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time.
Portencross Castle, Ayrshire
Owned by: Friends of Portencross Castle
Remains of 14th century castle. Started around 1360, Portencross was the seat of the Boyds of Kilmarnock. The Boyds had been gifted the lands on which the castle stands by King Robert I as a reward for their support at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. The castle was occupied until 1739, when a particularly nasty storm blew the roof off. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time during summer months.
Ravenscraig Castle, Kirkcaldy, Fife
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 16th century royal castle. Ordered by King James II in 1460, the castle was built as a home for his wife, Mary of Guelders. The castle is considered to be one of the first, if not the first, in Scotland to be built to provide defence from cannon fire. The castle design consists of two round towers linked by a cross range, the west tower provided the living quarters for James' widow Queen Mary, who lived there until her death in 1463. Ironically, James had been killed in a tragic accident when a loaded cannon exploded at the Capture of Roxburgh Castle only months after work on Ravenscraig had begun. Free but limited access at any reasonable time.
Rothesay Castle, Rothesay, Isle of Bute, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Very well preserved early medieval castle. Although earlier fortifications existed on the site, the current castle was built to an unusual circular design at the beginning of the 13th century. The castle comprises a huge curtain wall with four round towers, all surrounded by a substantial moat. Set on the Isle of Bute in a busy stretch of Viking controlled waters, the castle survived several Norse attacks to become a royal residence of the Stewart Kings of Scotland. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Rowallan Castle, Kilmaurs, Strathclyde
Owned by: Historic Scotland
This grand Renaissance mansion is based around a late 13th century two-storey tower house. Extended over the centuries that followed, it was the home of the influential Muir family who counted writers, historians, and composers amongst their number the earliest lute music to survive in Scotland was written at Rowallan. Access only by pre-booked tour and entrance charges apply.
Scalloway Castle, Scalloway, Shetland
Owned by: Historic Scotland
This castellated mansion was built in 1600 by the infamous Patrick Stewart, Earl of Orkney. Built to tighten his grip on Shetland, Earl Patrick continued the Stewart family traditions of corruption and brutality. Free access at any reasonable time.
Skipness Castle, Skipness, Kintyre, Argyll and Bute
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Built in the early 13th century by the Clan MacSween, later fortifications were added in the centuries that followed. In 1494, the castle was garrisoned with royal troops during King James IV's suppression of the Isles. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in 1646, the castle was besieged it was abandoned by the end of the century. Free access at any reasonable time.
Slains Castle, Aberdeenshire
Owned by: Slains Partnership
Remains of 16th century tower house. Set on a cliff-top overlooking the North Sea, this 16th century tower house was built by Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll. Also known as New Slains Castle to distinguish it from nearby Old Slains Castle which was destroyed on the orders of James VI in 1594, following a localised Catholic rebellion. Seat of the powerful Clan Hay, the castle was extensively remodelled in a Scots Baronial style in the mid-1830s. Sold in 1913 by the 20th Earl of Erroll, the now roofless shell awaits restoration. Usually free and open access at any reasonable time during summer months.
Sorbie Tower, Sorbie, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Clan Hannay
Built in the late sixteenth century, this traditional Scottish fortified tower house is the ancient seat of the Clan Hannay. By 1748 the tower had become became ruinous it remains to second floor level, although unusual for such a building there is no wall-walk or parapet atop. Free access at any reasonable time.
St Andrews Castle, St Andrews, Fife
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 13th century castle of the archbishops of St Andrews. Built around the late 1100s, St Andrews served as the ecclesiastical centre of Scotland in the years before the Protestant Reformation. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, the castle was destroyed and rebuilt several times as it changed hands between the Scots and the English. Most of what can be seen today dates from a rebuild completed around 1400 by Bishop Walter. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Stalker Castle, Argyll
Owned by: Allward family
Largely restored 15th century tower house. Built on the site of an earlier fortification, the current Castle Stalker was erected by Sir John Stewart, Lord of Lorn, around the mid-1400s. The four storey tower house, or keep, occupies a picturesque setting on a small tidal island in Loch Laich. Lost in a drunken wager to the Clan Campbell in 1620, the Campbells finally abandoned the castle around 1840. Castle Stalker again found fame appearing in the 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail. The castle is now privately owned with a limited number of tours operated during summer months.
Stirling Castle, Stirling, Stirlingshire
Owned by: Historic Scotland
One of the largest and most important castles in Scotland, it is surrounded on three sides by steep cliffs and guards what was the farthest downstream crossing of the River Forth. The castle has survived at least eight sieges and several Scottish kings and queens have been crowned at Stirling, including Mary, Queen of Scots. Most of the current castle buildings date from the 15th and 16th centuries. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Tantallon Castle, North Berwick, Lothian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Semi-ruined mid-14th century fortress. Built in the mid-14th century by William Douglas, it remained the seat of the Douglas Earls of Angus for most of its history. Besieged by King James IV in 1491, and then again by James V in 1528, Tantallon also saw action in the First Bishops' War in 1639. Following a twelve day bombardment with cannon, the castle was left in ruins during Oliver Cromwell's invasion of Scotland in 1651: it was never repaired or inhabited afterward. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Threave Castle, Castle Douglas, Dumfries and Galloway
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of large 14th century tower. Built by Archibald the Grim, Lord of Galloway in the 1370s on an island in the River Dee, Threave became the stronghold of the Black Douglases. William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas, began a series of improvements to the castle's defences in 1447, and in 1455. Threave withstood a two month siege before the garrison, bribed and promised safe conduct, surrendered. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Tolquhon Castle, Pitmedden, Aberdeenshire, Grampian
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Remains of 15th century tower house. Built by William Forbes, 7th Laird of Tolquhon between 1584 and 1589, adding to an earlier tower house which is still stands, the castle features a highly ornamented gatehouse. Tolquhon is one of the most picturesque castles in the Grampian countryside. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.
Urquhart Castle, Dumnadrochit, Highlands
Owned by: Historic Scotland
Though built on the site of an early medieval fortress, the present ruins overlooking Loch Ness date from the 13th to the 16th centuries. Urquhart played a role in the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century and was subsequently held as a royal castle. Largely abandoned by the middle of the 17th century, the castle was partially destroyed in 1692 to prevent its use by Jacobite forces, and subsequently fell into disrepair. Restricted opening times and entrance charges apply.

Lapierre History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The surname lapierre was first found in Languedoc where this impressive family held a family seat since ancient times.

The family expanded, prospered and established the branches of the Lords of Saint Marcel, of Nîmes and of Bernis-Calvière. Bertrand III De Pierre was married four times, first in 1540 to Jeanne De Chalancon-Polignac, second to Christine De Geys in 1548, third to Guisette Duranc De Vibrac in 1550, and finally to Louis D'Artfeld in 1557. An important member of the military, Jean II, Lord of Bernis, was the mestre de camp (Commander of a cavalry regiment) under Henri IV during the 1500's. His son, Jean-Jacques, Lord of Bernis, commanded the Phalsbourg regiment, but he was killed at the Fontanette battle in Milanais in the 1600's. Descending from Jean, Joachim De Pierre, Lord of St-Marcel and of Bernis, was a Captain of the Cavalry and, in 1697, he married Marie-Elisabeth Du Chastel, daughter of Christophe, Baron of Condres, and of Louise Du Chastel, Baroness of Châteauneuf.

A decorated member of the military, François De Pierre, Lord of Loubatière, was a Captain of the Montconseil regiment who received the Grand-Cross of Saint-Jean of Jerusalem in the 1700's. One of the most remarkable members of the family, Pons-Simon, Viscount of Bernis, then Marquis of Pierre-Bernis, started off as a King's Page, then he became the Captain of the King's Dragoons. He continued to receive promotions: in 1771, Commander of the Dragoons in 1776, Colonel of the Soissonais regiment in 1784, Brigadier of the King's armies in 1788, Camp Marshal of the King's armies, and then Baron of the Estates of Languedoc and of Albigeois. Many other members of the family received important honours for their military and civil services, but they are too numerous to list.


A Castle Shaped by History

The land at Belvoir was a gift from William the Conqueror to the family’s first recorded ancestor Robert de Todeni. One of his Norman barons, Robert de Todeni was William’s Standard Bearer in the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

Todeni began building the first Castle here in 1067. It was built to a typically Norman motte-and-bailey design. With a timber framed fortress in an enclosed courtyard, it took full advantage of the site’s defensive position high up on the ridge. Todeni also founded a priory at the foot of the Castle, where he was buried on his death in 1088.

By 1464, the Wars of the Roses had taken their toll on the first castle, and it was more or less in ruins.

Belvoir rose again some 60 years later with the construction of the second Castle to a medieval design for Sir Thomas Manners. His grandfather Sir Robert Manners had married into the family, but Sir Thomas was the first Manners to live at Belvoir. The second Castle was a much nobler structure with a central courtyard, parts of which can still be recognized today.

In 1649, the second Castle was destroyed by Parliamentarians after Royalists had seized it during the Civil War (1642-1651).

The third Castle, completed in 1668 to a design by John Webb – a pupil of Inigo Jones – was created for John the 8th Earl under the instruction of his wife, Frances the Countess. She insisted on rebuilding it as a palatial country house without any resemblance to a castle.

You can see a magnificent model of the third Castle in the Ballroom: all that remains from the original design are the stables below the North Terrace.

James Wyatt, famous for his improvements at Windsor Castle, designed the fourth Castle. Still standing proudly above the Vale of Belvoir, it was built between 1801-1832 for the 5th Duke and Duchess of Rutland.

Elizabeth, the 5th Duchess of Rutland was the young, dynamic 18-year-old bride of John Henry, 5th Duke of Rutland. She was the daughter of the 5th Earl and Countess of Carlisle. As a child she had been fascinated by her father’s lavish and fashionable improvements at their family home – Castle Howard in Yorkshire.

Sharing her father’s passion for architecture and design, the young Duchess could see the potential after arriving at the horribly run-down Belvoir Castle in 1799. Abandoning Capability Brown’s plans to rebuild the Castle, she chose James Wyatt – the leading Gothic romantic architect – to create her dream home.

Today, Belvoir Castle is said by experts to be one of the finest examples of Regency architecture in the country.

In addition, the gardens have undergone several major changes over the centuries – the latest being a two-year restoration programme by the present Duchess to bring the lost plans of Capability Brown to fruition in 2016.


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Kitchen appliances are concealed with cabinetry, whose straw-coloured finishing has a hand-painted look, Anderson said. The kitchen also features a wallpapered ceiling, pizza oven and an extending pot-filler faucet next to a gas range.

A sitting room with fireplace off the kitchen opens to the main family room through a stone archway.(Photo by Michael Green Photography, courtesy Provision Immobilier) Photo by Myriam Frenette

Gothic elements in the kitchen area include a frieze, Anderson explained, that runs along the top of the cabinets and looks like latticework, as well as a wrought-iron chandelier above the dinette whose electric bulbs are shaped like candle flames.

Similar chandeliers are found throughout the house, and cast-iron sconces light up some halls, the spiralling staircase and the cloister.

The library features mahogany wainscotting and shelving, and wrought-iron chandeliers.(Photo by Michael Green Photography, courtesy Provision Immobilier) Photo by Myriam Frenette

The basement, accessible from the spiral staircase and a staircase near the kitchen, includes a service kitchen, a laundry room with two washing machines and two drying machines, a bathroom, a cedar storage closet, a wine cellar and access to an attached garage. A detached stone garage is also at the end of the driveway.

The home features geothermal energy, hand-printed Venetian wallpaper and stained glass.

The property backs onto Senneville’s Braeside golf course.

Taxes are an estimated $35,000 per year.

The Angus Castle, on Angus Avenue, has been on the market two years, said Louise Jackson, a real-estate agent for Profusion Immobilier who works with Susanne Stelmashuk Chernin and Diane Stelmashuk. It was originally listed at $5.5 million, Jackson said, and the price has since been reduced to $4.5 million.

This family room off the kitchen has heated pink granite floors and is 24-by-31 feet.(Photo by Michael Green Photography, courtesy Provision Immobilier) Photo by Myriam Frenette

Two children’s bedrooms are off this second family room, and a guest room with ensuite are above them.(Photo by Michael Green Photography, courtesy Provision Immobilier) Photo by Michael Green

The three-tiered pool at Senneville’s Angus Castle.(Photo by Michael Green Photography, courtesy Provision Immobilier) Photo by Myriam Frenette


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