History Podcasts

Keystone LB-7

Keystone LB-7

Keystone LB-7

The Keystone LB-7 was the highest numbered entry in the US Army Air Corps Light Bomber series to enter production, although the 18 aircraft ordered were actually built before the similar LB-6.

The prototype XLB-6 of 1927 had been given longer wings than the standard LB-5. Both the production LB-6 and the LB-7 retained the new wings, and were given a longer fuselage and redesigned twin-rudder tail unit. The first of the eighteen aircraft ordered was used as the XLB-7 for prototype testing, before joining the rest of the production aircraft as a standard LB-7.

The only difference between the LB-6 and the LB-7 was the engines. The LB-6 used Wright R-1750 engines, while the LB-7 used Pratt & Whitney R-1690-3 Hornet Bs.

According to the performance figures given by the National Museum of the USAF the LB-6 and LB-7 had exactly the same performance figures. This should not really surprise, as the two aircraft were of identical design, and were both powered by 525hp radial engines.

The LB-7 was used as the basis for a number of experiments with new engines. One became the single LB-8 when it was given geared Pratt & Whitney R-1860-3 radials. Another became the single LB-9 after receiving geared Wright Cyclone engines, and a third became the XLB-12 and was used to test the Pratt & Whitney R-1690-3 engine.

The LB-7 was the last entry in the Light Bomber series to enter production. An order was placed for 63 LB-10s, but these were all produced as either the B-3 Panther or B-5 Panther.

On 5 August 1929 nine LB-7s, each with 11-12 hours of gasoline onboard, left Langley Field heading for Rockwell Field California, to take part in the national air races. In 1928 the outward journey had taken six days, but in 1929 the LB-7s reached Rockwell in 40 hours, arriving on the evening of 6 August. Three off them then immediately carried out a practise mission of Point Loma. One was used in the 1930 exercises as a transport aircraft, and despite claims that all LB aircraft were give B designations in 1930, four LB-7s, with their original designation, were used in the 1931 Air Corps exercises.

Engine: Pratt & Whitney R-1690-3 radials
Power: 525hp each
Crew: 5
Span: 75ft 0in
Length: 49ft 3in
Height: 18ft 1in
Gross Weight: 13,070lb
Maximum Speed: 114mph at sea level
Cruising Speed: 95mph
Ceiling: 11,650ft
Range: 632 miles with full bomb load
Guns: Five 0.30in machine guns
Bomb load: 2,000lb


United States Army Air Corps

The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) was the statutory forerunner of the United States Air Force. Renamed from the Air Service on 2 July 1926, it was part of the United States Army and the immediate predecessor of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), established on June 20, 1941. Although abolished as an administrative echelon in 1942, the Air Corps (AC) remained as one of the combat arms of the Army until 1947.

The Air Corps was renamed by the United States Congress largely as a compromise between advocates of a separate air arm and those of the Army high command who viewed the aviation arm as an auxiliary branch to support the ground forces. Although its members worked to promote the concept of airpower and an autonomous air force between 1926 and 1941, its primary purpose by Army policy remained support of ground forces rather than independent operations.

On 1 March 1935, still struggling with the issue of a separate air arm, the Army activated the General Headquarters Air Force for centralized control of aviation combat units within the continental United States, separate from but coordinate with the Air Corps. The separation of the Air Corps from control of its combat units caused problems of unity of command that became more acute as the Air Corps enlarged in preparation for World War II. This was resolved by the creation of the Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, when both organizations became subordinate to the new higher echelon.

The Air Corps ceased to have an administrative structure after 9 March 1942, but as "the permanent statutory organization of the air arm, and the principal component of the Army Air Forces," the overwhelming majority of personnel assigned to the AAF were members of the Air Corps. Ώ]


6.6L Duramax LB7

The LB7 Duramax was first introduced for the 2001 model year as General Motors retired its 6.5L Detroit diesel. In every possible way, the Duramax was superior to the outdated Detroit and marked a revolutionary turning point for GMC and Chevrolet pickups in the diesel marketplace. 2001 also introduced the Allison 1000, arguably the first automatic transmission in its class worthy of being mated to a powerful diesel. The LB7 also appeared as the engine to adopt common rail technology, as Dodge would not implement its own common rail Cummins until the 2003 model year and it would take Ford's Power Stroke until 2008 to apply the technology. The LB7 is unique to other Duramax models as it predates emissions regulations. As such, it's praised for reliability and has been regarded as a particularly economical variation of the engine.

The LB7's applications included the Chevrolet Silverado HD, GMC Sierra HD, GMC TopKick (medium duty), and Chevrolet Kodiak (medium duty). As impressive as GM's new engine platform appeared, the LB7 had terrible problems with fuel injectors failing. In fact, injector failures were so frequent that GM was forced to recall the poorly designed units and replace them with an updated design. In order to provide loyal customers with a sense of reassurance, the factory warranty was extended to cover the new injectors for up to 200,000 miles. Despite injector troubles, the Duramax was featured in Ward's "10 Best Engines" for the 2001 and 2002 model years.

Potential buyers were immediately concerned with regard to the Duramax's aluminum heads, and for nearly a decade owners of competitor's pickups would gripe about their distrust for the alloy heads. However, head gasket failures (or other related concerns for that matter) are no more frequent on the aluminum headed Duramax diesel than other competitor's cast iron headed engine. Not only has the head design proven reliable, but other manufacturers have begun to employ aluminum alloy cylinder heads on their diesels in order to benefit from the significant weight saving.

The LB7 was available mated to the Allison 1000 five speed automatic transmission or the ZF 6 speed manual transmission, with the automatic being a much more common choice. The LB7 was produced through the 2004 model year, when the LLY was introduced in its place.

6.6L Duramax LB7 Specs

6.6L Duramax LB7, 90 degree V-8 diesel

Years Produced:

Displacement:

403 cubic inches, 6.6 liters

Assembly Site:

DMAX engine plant, Moraine, Ohio

Head/Block Material:

Aluminum cylinder heads, cast iron engine block

Compression Ratio:

Minimum Cylinder Pressure:

300 psi (minimum compression test pressure)

Firing Order:

Turbocharged and intercooled IHI RHG6 wastegated turbocharger, air-to-air intercooler

Direct injection, Bosch 23,000 psi high pressure common rail with Bosch CP3 injection pump

OHV (overhead valve), 4 valves per cylinder (32 valve)

Oil Capacity:

Engine Weight:

Max Engine Speed:

Peak Horsepower:

&bull 235 hp @ 2,700 rpm (2001 model year)
&bull 300 hp @ 3,100 rpm (2004 model year)

Peak Torque:

&bull 500 lb-ft @ 1,600 rpm (2001 model year)
&bull 520 lb-ft @ 1,800 rpm (2004 model year)


Douglas C-1 heads the Air Force transport family tree

As the fledgling U.S. Army Air Service was still figuring things out, in 1924 it created the C-Class of aircraft to include cargo and personnel transport, doing away with an earlier T-series that indicated Transport.

And C-Cargo it has been ever since, starting with the original Douglas C-1 biplane, introduced in 1925.

It was produced at the historic Douglas plant on the Santa Monica Clover Field airport in southern California.

The Douglas C-1 No. 79 (S/N 25-433) in flight, taken April 28, 1926. Even though it was on a photo mission, the utilitarian Douglas Transport sports one wheel fairing on the right main, with open wire spokes on the left main wheel. (U.S. Air Force photo)

The boxy C-1 enlarged upon designs like the Douglas World Cruiser (DWC), but a side-by-side comparison would show many differences in the two aircraft. The big fuselage made the Liberty engine in the nose of the C-1 look small. At the aft end, an unglamorously broad fin and rudder did their job.

As originally designed, the C-1 accommodated six to eight passengers in the cabin, with a pilot and copilot/mechanic sitting side-by-side in an open cockpit just below and ahead of the leading edge of the upper wing.

The stout Douglas World Cruisers of 1924 bore a strong family resemblance to the C-1 Transport that followed. (AAHS collection)

Ten C-1s (serials 25-425 through 25-434) served the Army. One of these was redesignated C-1A when it received a geared Liberty engine with supercharger.

Seventeen more rounded out production as nine-seat C-1C variants (serial numbers 26-421 through 26-427, and 27-203 through 212).

With its passenger seats easily removable, the C-1 could carry more than a ton of cargo, and a ventral trap door in the fuselage facilitated the loading of large and heavy items, such as aircraft engines, for transport. This may be the first purpose-built Army aircraft cargo door, embracing the utility of aircraft as important haulers for the military.

Cargo runs for the C-1s sometimes involved spare parts like engines and propellers for stranded Air Service aircraft. Mass parachute drops were tried with the C-1, and at least one also saw duty as an air ambulance aircraft, resplendent in white paint and red crosses. For the 1926 Ford Air Tour, a C-1 carried journalists and served as a pathfinder for the tour.

The salient sorties in the C-1s’ history are the use of two C-1s as makeshift tankers, relaying fuel, oil, and food to the Fokker C-2 called “Question Mark” that set an endurance record of more than 150 hours aloft over California in January 1929.

Obscured by several generations of copy negatives, this historic photo shows the Fokker C-2 Question Mark taking fuel from one of the Douglas C-1s configured for the endurance flight in January 1929. (Gerald Balzer collection)

One of the tanker C-1s was crewed by Capt. Ross G. Hoyt, First Lt. Auby Strickland, and Second Lt. Irvin A. Woodring. The other tanker was operated by First Lt. Odas Moon and Second Lieutenants Andrew F. Solter and Joseph G. Hopkins.

The receiver aircraft had a dorsal trap door through which a crewmember would grasp a refueling hose dangled by the C-1 crew. The special C-1s carried extra gas tanks and a 30′ hose with a copper wire running to the receiver aircraft for grounding. The C-1 tanker approached from behind and above the “Question Mark” to make contact.

Rough air sometimes forced the crews to deviate from their intended path to find a calmer refueling location.

A phenomenon of gravity caused problems as the C-1 became lighter, and the “Question Mark” heavier, as gasoline was transferred, and this tended to pull the two planes apart if the pilots were not immediately responsive to the weight changes. The pilot of the C-1 tanker could not see the position of the C-2 “Question Mark” below him. The remedy was a string tied to the arm of the C-1 tanker pilot. A crewmember who could see the C-2 beneath him would tug once if the C-1 needed to speed up, and tug twice if the tanker needed to slow down to maintain formation.

The two C-1s made a total of 37 refueling contacts, pouring more than 5,600 gallons of gasoline into the “Question Mark” and delivering 245 gallons of oil to keep the endurance aircraft functioning properly. At one point, a C-1 even lowered a Fokker window to replace one lost on the “Question Mark.”

The Douglas C-1 used a steel tube fuselage faired with wood and covered in fabric, typical of that era’s construction. The wings relied on spruce spars and ribs, covered in fabric. Wing struts were airfoil shaped aluminum, and the landing gear used chromoly steel tubing, an alloy including chromium and molybdenum. The C-1 spanned 60′ with both upper and lower wings. Wing chord was 7′. Length was 36′, and it stood 14′ above the grass surfaces from which it flew.

A Douglas C-1 refueled a twin-engine Keystone LB-7 bomber as the Air Service probed the capabilities of aerial refueling in the 1920s and 30s. (Gerald Balzer collection)

The C-1’s 12-cylinder liquid-cooled Liberty engine, an aging marvel of American design from World War I, produced more than 400 horsepower. With a top speed in the range of 110-120 miles per hour, its cruise speed has sometimes been listed as 85 and other times as between 95 and 105. In the aggravating uncertainty of performance data for so many early aircraft, range of the C-1 has been listed as low as 385 miles and as high as about 600 miles.

Called simply the Douglas Transport, this design received Approved Type Certificate 14 in October 1927, according to historian Joseph P. Juptner, although he was unable to find evidence that civilian models were built.

The sturdy C-1 was photographed by the Air Service in October 1925. Wing struts were aluminum, landing gear was steel. (Gerald Balzer collection)

Nonetheless, this presaged a trend over the decades in which cargo aircraft and commercial aircraft have blurred the lines, with the same basic airframes serving both the military and airlines, as with the classic C-47 and DC-3, the DC-4 and C-54, the C-69 and Constellation, and the C-97 and Stratocruiser, among others. In the 1960s, Lockheed marketed a civilian version of the Air Force’s C-141A Starlifter as a freighter, the L-300, but no sales were finalized.

In the history of the Air Force, the old Douglas C-1 of the 1920s was cast as a supporting player. The significance and capability of airlifters has grown ever since.

Frederick Johnsen

Fred Johnsen is a product of the historical aviation scene in the Pacific Northwest. The author of numerous historical aviation books and articles, Fred was an Air Force historian and curator. Now he devotes his energies to coverage for GAN as well as the Airailimages YouTube Channel. You can reach him at [email protected]

About Frederick Johnsen

Fred Johnsen is a product of the historical aviation scene in the Pacific Northwest. The author of numerous historical aviation books and articles, Fred was an Air Force historian and curator. Now he devotes his energies to coverage for GAN as well as the Airailimages YouTube Channel. You can reach him at [email protected]

General Aviation News reserves the right to delete snarky, offensive or off-topic comments. See our Comment Policy for more details.


Electronic Components & Hardware


Request a copy of our New Product Design Guide M70
Click Here

New Keystone Campus Video: Corp Offices, Warehouse & Manufacturing Facilities

Come take a look around:

SMT Low Profile PCB Edge Connectors

New series of SMT PC Board Connectors designed to pass signals or power across PC Boards .

  • May 21, 2021 - Measure Once, Cut Once
  • April 21, 2021 - Inoculation Propagation
  • March 20, 2021 - Evolution of the Hearing Aid, Listen and Learn
  • May 18, 2021 - Newsletter-May -2021 -Vol-9
  • April 16, 2021 - Newsletter-April -2021 -Vol-9
  • March 19, 2021 - Newsletter-Mar-2021 -Vol-9

Tuesday, May 15, 2012

Mojave Skyrays

A pair of VMF-115's Skyrays cruise over the mountains of the Mojave Desert.
(Mojave Transportation Museum Collection)
From the archives of the Mojave Transportation Museum come today's three photos, depicting the Douglas F4D-1 Skyrays that Marine Fighter Squadron VMF-115 operated from MCAAS Mojave during the summer and fall of 1956.

VMF-115 had been the first USMC squadron equipped with the Grumman F9F Panther in 1949, and with the jets, they had expended more ordnance in Korea than any other Marine squadron.

When the new Douglas F4D came on line (nicknamed "Ford") in early 1956, VFM-115 got the Marines' first jets, and deployed to MCAAS Mojave for six month of operational flight testing.

Mojave was first established as a Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Station in July, 1942, at a time when the Corps needed a place for its pilots to get their gunnery training. They stayed there until 1946, and then returned in 1953, staying that time until 1959. During this second stay in the desert, the Corps drastically lengthened the main runway to accommodate their new jets. This legacy, years later, made the now-civilian Mojave Airport an ideal location for flight testing, and eventually the space port that it now is.

The Skyray was the last Douglas fighter built before that company had a "McDonnell" shoved in front of it.

VMF-115 personnel go through the ceremonies of departing MCAAS Mojave
on November 20, 1956


History

In what seemed a bold move in 1996, I hung up my corporate hat, mortgaged my house, and sought out a beautifully tranquil piece of property in the Santa Monica Mountains to hatch a summer day camp in an attempt to return to nature, creativity, and a youthful curiosity that had slowly drained my system since college, since my own days as counselor, camper, child. I knew I needed to put food on the table, but more importantly, I needed a job that got me home in time to enjoy those table-talk dinners with my family. As I stood among Agoura’s vastness, with its decades-old Oaks and masses of shady Sycamores, its natural creeks inhabited by tadpoles starting their own life-swims, I found myself in the middle of nowhere. And in the middle of nowhere, I found myself, and what would become so much more.

My newfound camp plan needed a name. Something that encompassed the whole of its mission: a place for children to thrive and explore, to grow and learn, to soak up and retain for life the joy and innocence of childhood. As I was brainstorming names, Happy Camp, Camp Wilderness, Kiddie Camp all fell short of the breadth of my vision. Until I came across Keystone! In architectural terms keystone is the central stone at the summit of an arch, locking the whole together. With enthusiasm and prescience, I translated its definition into life-terms. Camp Keystone would be the apex, a linchpin with the potential to hold steady a child’s life, the balancing feature between school, family, friends, spirituality, socialization, community, autonomy and confidence. Camp Keystone would be the heart and core, a nurturing and necessary foundation for children, including my own, to become at once wholly individual and completely belonging.

Summer camps, back in the day, were made to teach survival skills, self-reliance, and independence. Without compromising the traditions of old-timey campfires, horseback rides, fishing, guidance and instruction, I was determined to reinvent camp in the biggest, best, wettest way in the west. Really I desperately wanted my kids to think I was the coolest dad around! Enter: 274 foot raging water slides, foam cannons, roller racers, zip lines and more. As my children grew, so did Camp Keystone. Our campers became counselors, our counselors directors. Our return rate multiplied annually. Generations followed, and together we grew camp from its uninhabited, majestic blues and greens, to a magical summer home, an extended family. My business became a life. Camp hosted my kids’ birthday parties, class parties, friends’ parties, staff weddings. With each birthday and event came age-appropriate and wildly creative additions: bounce houses, mini-golf, drama, karate when my kids turned five. Pottery, mountain climbing, batting cages at nine. Adventure and exploration flourished, without losing the snug intimacy and educative environment for our youngest tots, separate from the frenetic energy of the rest of camp. In this organic and very personal way, I grew Camp Keystone from seedling to staggering. And I’m proud to say, I’m the only camp founder in our area still operating, from inception to present day. Camp Keystone 2854 Triunfo Canyon Rd, Agoura Hills, CA 91301 818-889-2224 www.campkeystone.com

Our Keystone philosophy remains constant, even as camp evolves. Our conviction is not to teach children to excel at one thing, this is not golf camp or theater camp, but rather, to expose them to the widest variety of activities so their own budding talents and palates may bend and adhere to their strengths, savvy and skills. Camp Keystone is a real life choose-your-own-adventure, where activities are the journey, and resulting ingenuities are for keeps.

And while our campers find and define themselves, cultivate lifelong friendships, translate summer days into narratives and memories, our parents get a reprieve from running kids to schools and soccer, to daycare and dance, from packing lunches and driving carpools, some time to recharge for the coming school year. Knowing and assured that their children are safe and stimulated, nestled by our breathtaking woodlands, by the hearts and experience of our dedicated directors, educators and staff, by our captivating and inspiring activities. Knowing the Camp Keystone lives up to its name year after year, remaining steady as the seed that spawned it, yet growing and widening its arch with the quality and focse of every camper who comes through.


Contents

Registration VH-TJA, c/n 18741. Delivered new to TAA on October 1964 with earlier livery The Nation's Jetline. Sold to International Air Leases on October 1976, then entered service with Air Florida on December of the same year, and registered N40AF in 1977. Finally sold to Continental Airlines in July 1977 in where she serves until 1991, stored at Mojave and scrapped in 1993.

In the background, we can guess the C-47 Skytrain of East West Airlines, listed further.


Skyways Index

1, Jan 1987 Gipsy Moth manual, Pt 1 Curtiss D-12 engine Douglas 0-43A 1932 National Air Races Keystone 13-1 bomber Battleship Planes North American BT-9 cockpit Berliner-Joyce Y1P-16 flight report Chronology Highlights 1920-1921

2, Apr 1987 Ford 5-AT-II Cessna DC-6 Series Navy & Marine Aircraft 1920-25 Travel Air B6C three-view Star Cavalier flight report Grumman F3F-I cockpit Gipsy Moth manual conclusion Pitcairn PA-4 Chronology Highlights 1922-1923

3, Jul 1987 Old Orchard Beach-Beginnings McCook Field-Airplane Record, Pt 1 Sperry Messenger “l’Oiseau Blanc” and three-view Travel Air 4000 flight report Early McCook Field cockpits Chronology Highlights 1924-1925

4, Oct 1987 Curtiss 18- T and three-view Aeronca Model L The Last Nardi (FN305) Ford XB-906 Chicago Midwest X Flying the Air Mail 1921 Style, Pt 1 Focke Wulf Fw 56 Reflector Gun Sights Chronology Highlights 1926-1927

5, Jan 1988 Early Army Hawks Old Orchard Beach-The Dawn McCook Field P-Numbers, Pt 2 New “Southern Cross” with Fokker F-VIIB factory drawings, Pt 1 Chronology Highlights 1928-1929 Those Levasseurs, dwgs Curtiss O-1 C Falcon cockpits New England Air Museum

6, Apr 1988 Wright Whirlwind Story, dwgs Aeronca C-3 and three-view Caproni Ca 100 Navy & Marine Aircraft 1926-29 1925 National Air Races I3f 109E-I Restoration Fokker FVIIB factory drawings, Pt 2 Panama 1928-29 Caterpillar Club Grumman SF-I cockpit Chronology Highlights 1930-1931

7, Jul 1988 Vought VE-7 Bellanca TES TriesteTurin FB-5 Restoration and three-view Driggs Dart II and three-view Chronology 11ighlights 1932-1933 Vought-Sikorsky VS-44A Grumman G21 cockpit Aviation Videos

8, Oct 1988 US Fighter Sights Between the Wars Australian Cub Caproni Ca 113 More On Hawks with XP-3A three-view RAF, FAA 1935-36 Old Orchard Beach-Roma Monocoupe Log Flying the Air Mail, Pt 2 Loening Navy Planes Douglas 0-38 cockpits Chronology Highlights 1934-1935

9, Jan 1989 Fokker Netherlands Single Engine Planes of the 1920s Fokker PW-5 European Transport Aircraft Douglas DT -2 McCook/Wright Field P-Numbers, Pt 3 Zenith Z-6B LeBlond Engines Chronology Highlights 1936-1937 Vasa-R 101-Challenger Consolidated XPY-I cockpit Cuatro Vientos Museo del Aire

10, Apr 1989 Junkers-Jn 52/3m QED and “Time Flies” Fleet Biplanes, Alaska Airways and NC20K Air National Guard Fokker Netherlands, Pt 2 Waco YKS-7 Reborn Nardi FN305 5-view Grumman JF-I cockpit

11, Jul 1989 History of the Pandcr D Typc Fiat CR 20 Loughead Gurnard The American Spad Days At Blackburn New Standard D-25 Skyways Gallery Pfalz D XV Hind For Canada Oldies in Anstralia Boeing MB-3A cockpit

12, Oct 1989 Mussolini’s Eagles Over Gnernica North American 0-47A Curtiss-Wright CW-l Junkers-Larsen JL-6 Navy & Marine Aircraft 1930-33 Wheels, The Post War Era Ford Flivver Cnrtiss SOCI cockpits TOPIC INDEX

13, Jan 1990 Curtiss and Curtiss-Wright Aircraft in Latin American Service Menasco Airplane Structures Vought XSB2U-I Beardmore Intlexihle Cuba-America Airline Vought VE-7 Boeing XB-15 Spirit of SL Louis

14, Apr 1990 Tale of Two Condors Comper Streak Jesse L Gray The Magnificent Dream Fokker Netherlands Revisited Harold Hawk and His Pietenpol Yackey Transport B-20 Condor cockpit LeBlond Follow-Up

15, Jul 1990 Early Air Service Pursuits The Noorduyn Norscman Noorduyn Recollections Lambach HL II MAEE Felixstowe 1936 Restorations Etc Swen Swanson Boeing 203 Noorduyn Norscman cockpits

16, Oct 1990 Milwaukee’s First Airliner Alfred W Lawson and His Planes De Havilland Comet Gipsy Major Olympics and the Alcors, Pt 1 Piaggio Pegna Pc 7 Alexander Eaglerock Bullet Sikorsky-Lindbergh Correspondence Pitcairn PA4 Laird Super Solution cockpit

17, Jan 1991 Navy & Marine Aircraft 1934-1939 Short Bros Lenape Engine Olympics and the Alcors Roy Jones’ Mystery Plane Log of the Friesley Falcon Fairchild KR’s Kalinin K-7 Boeing 314 cockpit Museo Storico AM

18, Apr 1991 EDO Commercial Seaplane Floats Chilton DWI Bellanca DH Fokker FXX Log of the Friesley Falcon II Chicago, August 10, 1933 Variable Pitch Propellers Fokker YO-27 Consolidated YIP-25 cockpit

19, Jul 1991 Bugatti Model 100 Douglas 0-2 Series Monocoupe Early Boeing Pursuits & Fighters Aircraft of Michel Wibault Bay Region Gliding in the 1930’s Kreider-Reisner Revisited Consolidated Commodore cockpit

20, Oct 1991 Russian R-5 Consolidated Fleetsters, Pt 1 Experimental 24 Cylinder Liberty Engine Early Aviation in Peoria North American NA-40 Morane-Saulnier Parasol Trainers Marine Loenings Douglas DC-5 cockpit

21, Jan 1992 Planes of the Dole Race Soviet Glider Torpedo Projects Crash of Panagra S-43 NC15065 Douglas World Cruisers Savoia Marchetti S-56 US Experimental Aircraft Fokker FXX Wibault Aircraft Seversky P-35 cockpit

22, Apr 1992 Junkers Luftverkehr Origins of the Pander D Replica Military Planes, 1920s Honeymoon Fairchild Those Payens Record Flights and Attempts Consolidated Fleetsters, Pt 2 Cuban Waco SNCAC NC 150 Waco D cockpit

23, Jul 1992 Command-Aire “Little Rocket” AllAmerica Flying Derby Monospar ST4 Curtiss-Wright Junior Replica Boeing 80 Soviet TB-1 Airplane Accidents Junkers Luftverkehr, Conc Tex Rankin’s Hollywood Aces Pairs From Los Angelcs Dornicr Super-Wal “l‘Oiseau Blanc” Lost Flight I3T -8 cockpit

24, Oct 1992 Movie Planes Kalinin and His Planes Curtiss BFC-2 Project Focke-Wull FW 58 Ford Flivver Update New Era Model A Junkers-Larscn JL-6/F 13 The Boomerang Bird of Paradise Levasscur PL 1 to PL 8 Curtiss A-12 cockpit

25, Jan 1993 Verville VCP-R/R-I Levasseur PL 9 to PL 401 Steam Powered Travel Air More On X-Planes Navy Wings Junkers Planes in Russia Flying the Laird Super Solution Ford Tri-motor Incredible Gee Bees Bocch B-17L cockpit

26, Apr 1993 Instrument Panels 1935, Utility Squadron Five SU’s Bulgarian Aircraft Stinson R RAAF Bristol Bulldog Little Rocket Revisited Levasseur PL 7 Early Anny Ambulance Planes Savoia Marchctti S81 P-35NAT-I2 cockpit

27, Jul 1993 Bubl Bul1 Pup Szekely Aircraft and Engine Compaoy Reconnaissance Plaoe R-3 Caddo Revisited Airliners in the Hinterland Berliner-Joyce Navy Figbters Loire et Olivier H43 San Diego Aerospace Museum Ford TableTop Model Photography Army Ambulance Plaocs Japanese Imports Orion 9B cockpit

28, Oct 1993 Consolidated Flectsters III Curtiss XS2C-I Ralph O’Neill in Mexico Flcet Model 10 Huntingtoo Governor San Diego Grumman F3F-2 Handley Page HP39 Gugnunc Lindbergh Crate Lives! Civil Birds, Mid ‘Thirties Bloch MB 120 More on Japaoese Imports Pratt & Whitoey Vultees DWC cockpits

29, Jan 1994 Messerschmitt Bf 109B-I Sikorsky S-42 Jose Falco Sao Martin The Pilots of KLM Reconstructioo of the Gee Bee R-I Towle Amphibian Irwin Meteorplane Croshy CR-4 Bociog 95 History Boeing 95 cockpit

30, Apr 1994 The Pilots of KLM, cone Sikorsky Airplanes 1924-27 Airfoils Past 00 Homebuilts Udet Flamingo Dewoitine D27 in Swiss Service Messerschmitt Bf 109B-I, conc Gambets in Japan Piper P-4 Focke-Wulf W4 109B cockpit

31, Jul 1994 Ford Small Experimeotal Aircraft 19271936 TBuana Aircraft Factory Fokker Views Vance Flying Wing Bellanca 2892 De Havilland DH-71 Tiger Motb Czech Pix Japanese Imports Addenda Boeing YIB-9A cockpits

32, Oct 1994 Planes for the Marshals of China Plane Questioos Sikorsky Specs Nighthawk Jacu7:Zi Monoplane Longster Parnall CIO Heiokel He IIIB-I Engine Installations Skyways Gallery Curtiss Kingbird cockpit

33, Jan 1995 Gwinn Aircar New York Hospital For Aotiques Bulgarian Aircraft Industry 1924-45 Messerschmitt Taifun First Sikorsky S-38s Dornier DoA Libelle More On Tom Towle Messerschmitt Bf 108 cockpit INDEX SKYWAYS #1-30

34, Apr 1995 Lindbergh’s Atlantic Survey Flight Curtiss-Wright CW-2I Japan’s French Connection B/J Navy Fighters Followup Wiseoant Longitudinal Airplane Burnelli’s Bombers More Steam Power Fokker Details First Kill (PZLs) Boeing PB-I Cockpit Mexicans in the Gloriosa

35, Jul 1995 Stearman XOSS (+ cockpits) US Airline Fleets 1940 Martin MBT/MT (+ cockpit) Preserving Aviation History Low Aspect Ratio Flyiog Wings, Biplanes How They Work Travel Air Mystery Ship Me 109 00 Long Island Prototype Spitfire Repro Federal CM-3

36, Oct 1995 Curtiss-Wright 19R + Cockpits (Pt I) Capelis XC-12 Mystery Ship (Pt 2) Curtiss of (Pt 1) St Louis Aircraft Corp Ford Flivvers Forever

37, Jan 1996 Cunningham-Hall GA-36 Vought XSB2U-3 Viodicator Iloatplane Macchi M-16 &M-20 Designers’ Dreams Raciog Notebook, Curtiss-Wright 19R (Pt 2) Ford Flivvers III & IV Kalinin K13M Johnson Twin 60 Hoeing XF6BI/XBFB-I Cockpit, Existing Historic Raceplanes

38, Apr 1996 Schneider Racers & World’s Speed Record Early Supercharging Sikorsky S-38 “114” series Curtiss CT, Pt 2 Anacostia Tests-Hall XFH-I CW-2IB Cockpit Racing Notebook ID UNK

39, Jul 1996 Boeing F2B Anacostia Tests-F2B Cockpits-F2D Racing Notebook Fw 200 Condor airliner Belgian Ansaldos ID UNK DH-71 Racer Reproduction

40, Oct 1996 Special lOth Annivcrsary Issue With Color Cover and Article on Consolidated Commodore Model Flying Boats, Loening Air Yachts, Stinson SM-4 Hall-Aluminum XPTBH-2 Patrol Torpedo Bomber (+ Cockpit), Early P-38 Problems ID UNK Reproductions Models

41, Jan 1997 Anacostia Tests/Cockpits Brewster XSBA-I Dive Bomber Sikorsky S-38 214 Series There Was No Law Racing Notebook ID UNK Models Reproductions and Restorations Museums

42, Apr 1997 Spirit of St Louis Reproductions/Cockpit Wichita’s 1st Mil Airplanes Aoacostia Tests/Cockpit Kiooer XRK-I French Fighters 1918-34, Pt 1 ID UNK Edo’s 1st Airplane ID UNK Racing Notebooks Model Realism US Civil Register Project Details Sikorsky S-38 Models

43, Jul 1997 Martin 156 Soviet Clippcr & cockpits Menasco Engines Pt 1, Fokker in the US Pt 1 Details Curtiss O-IB & cockpits Bellanca in Search of a Record Models ID UNK Reproductions Museums

44, Oct 1997 Oshkosh ‘97 French Fighters, Pt 2 St Louis Aircraft Corp Revisited Cockpits-St Louis Cardinal & Balloon Cars XB-I5 incl cockpit Reversed Throttles Details-Early Monocoupe, Macchi MI6, F3F ldg gear, Models, ID UNK

45, Jan 1998 General Aviation GA-43 (incl Cockpit) & GA-38 Soversky X-BT Menasco Engines, Pt 2 Fokker in the US Pt 2 Anacostia Tests Bellanca XSE-I ID UNK Models Details Navy-Wright NW-l Racer

46, Apr 1998 Aeromarine 40 & 50 (inel cockpits) Curtiss-Wright CW-3 Duck Details Curtiss TS-I Aeromarine WM Mail Plane Aoacostia Tests Consolidated 3 I Fleetwings F-IOI Mexicao Corsairs Reproductions & Restorations Models ID UNK

47, Jul 1998 Cal Poly Airplanes Aeromarioe AMC & Variable Camber Messenger Freoch Fighters, Pt 3 Welch Monoplane Cockpits-Fokker F-32 Breese-Dallas Model I ID UNK Models W&D

48, Oct 1998 Northrop & Vought Fighters XFT-I & -2, N-3A, V-141, V-143, Pt 1 Aeromarine EO Anacostia Flight Tests Hoeing F4BI & -2 Cockpits Hoeing F4B-I & -2, XP-12A, P-I2B Details Hoeing F4B-I & -2, P-I2 Osa & Martin Johnson’s S-38 & S-39, Pt 1 Fleetwings Stainless Steel Wing for Dolphin ID UNK Models Reviews W&D

49, Jan 1999 Aeromarine Air Mail Planes AM-I, -2, -3, BM-I Oshkosh ‘98 Osa & Martin Johnson S-38 & S-39, Pt 2 Reproductions & Restorations Johnson Wax Sikorsky S-38 Carnauba, Stearman 4D, Fokker CJV & Universal, Spirit of St Louis, Gloster Gladiator, Southern Martlet Sikorsky S-38 314-Series ID UNK Cockpits Heinkel 110 IIIC airlincr Models Reviews W&D

50, Apr 1999 50th Anniversary Issue w/Woodcock color cover of Sikorsky S-41 encounteriog tidal wave Northrop & Vought fighters Pt 2 N-3A, V-141, V143 include cockpit Osa & Martin Johnson’s S-38 & S-39 Racing Notebook (Keith Riders) Aeromarine bombers Details & Cockpits Bellanca XSE-I and -2 Navy Scouts Reproductions & Restorations Vickers Vedette Models ID UNK Reviews W&D

51, JuI 1999 Osa & Martio Johnson & their Sikorsky S-38, S-39, Pt 4 Sun ‘n Fun Fly-lo 1999 Stioson R commercial Sunheam Buckley LC-4 Hoeing 40 mod US Aircraft Simplex racer ID UNK Reproductions & Restorations more 00 the early Curtiss IIawks (L18 I (XPW8) P-IA, -B, -C F6C-I, -2, -3) includes detailed structural dwgs Models W&D Rcviews

52, Oct 1999 Acromarine Aifvays, dwgs Model 75 Curtiss Kingbird, dwgs the Johnson’s Sikorskys, Pt 5 Reproductions/ Restorations (Vickers Vimy) Oshkosh 99 ID UNK, dwgs Dayton-Wright Acrial Coupe Curtiss Model 75 Hawk, Details & Cockpits Faircy Gordon, dwgs Modcls (building model DH-9A) Rcviews W&D

53, Jan 2000 Curtiss-Wright CW20, Pt 1 Johuson’s Sikorskys, concl ID UNK Douglas XH19, Pt 1, include Cockpits Mexican Fannan F-50s Models lctters W&D Reviews

54, Apr 2000 Douglas XB-19 Pt 2 Dayton-Wright RB Raccr, dwgs Bocing P-26 North American NA-16 Tom Counelly & DH-6 Curtiss-Wright CW-20, Pt 2, include Cockpits ID UNK Models Dwgs for NC Rcstorations/Reproductions From the Members Reviews W&D

55, Jul 2000 Brewster Buffalo, Anacostia flight tests pilot report, Stearman PT-17 Stewart Aircrafl Co Cockpits (Brcwster Buffalos) Reproductions & Restorations Brewster Buffalo details ID UNK From the Mcmbers Models (Gamma modcl restoration W&D Reviews INDEX SKYWAYS #31-50

56, Oct 2000 Martin XP2M-I feature, details, cockpit Sikosky UniversalWing Boeing P-12 repro Oshkosh 2000 Flyiug in Stiusou Trimotor Jacksou 0-2 Pilot report- 1931 Bird CK Supermariue Southamptons ID UNK Models Reviews W&D

57, Jan 2001 Consolidated PB-2A (+ dwgs) Curtiss F7C-I (+ dwgs, cockpits) Two little Airliues Reproductions & Rcstorations (Polikarpovs, Curtiss-Wright CW-I, P12/F4B) ID UNK From thc Mcmbcrs Models W&D Reviews

58, Apr 2001 More Acromarines (+ dwgs) 27th Pursuit P-12Es Night Advertisiug (Stinson & Keystone) Fiat AS Wiley Post’s 1933 World Flight ID UNK Douglas XO-31 & YO-31, dwgs, cockpits Philippine Air Svc 1920-21 From the Members (dwgs Jackson 0-2) Models Type Club list W&D Reviews

59, Jul 2001 Vultee P-66, P-48, dwgs Paramount A/c Corp, Cabinaire & Sportster dwgs Curtiss-Wright CW-15 cockpit Macchi M39 dwgs NYBRA airline ID UNK Reproductions & Restorations (Martin MB-2, Hurricane From the Members Models W&D

60, Oct 2001 Curtiss Sparrowhawks Anacostia flight tests Cockpits, same Matt dwgs, same Oshkosh 2001 ID UNK Reproductions & Restorations Notes from the Publisher Ryan M-I repro, dwgs Walter Carr Racer, dwgs Racing Notebook Laird Super Solution dwgs Models Reviews From the Members Models W&D

61, Jan 2002 Abrams Explorer, dwgs Cockpits (Stinson SR-I OF/XC-81 D) Golden Wings Museum (Greg Herrick) Alexander Bullets Antique Airfield Fly-ln 200 I Aeronca C-3 restoration of Savoia-Marchetti S-56 Reproductions and Restorations Models From the Members ID UNK (dwgs Pasped Skylark) W&D Reviews

62, Apr 2002 Grumman XF5F-I Skyrocket, dwgs, Cockpits Jack Laister’s Yankee Doodle sailplane & Lawrence Tech gliders, dwgs ID UNK SPIRIT OF ST LOUIS (the movie) Maine’s Flying Dutchman (Fokker C1V) Racing Notebook Golden Age Air Museum Fly-ln Reproductions & Restorations Models From the Members Reviews W&D

63, Jul 2002 Editorial (Boeing 307 crash) Mercury Aerobat & Baumann/Mercury B-100, B-120 (dwgs) My Life in Aviation (Rolf Zurwelle), Pt 1 Racing Notebook (PanAmerican air races) ID UNK repro Waco Cootie (dwgs) Curtiss-Wright 22 Falcon, Pt 1 + dwgs Cockpits (Curtiss- Wright SNC- I ) Models Repros and Restorations (NapierHeston Racer) W&D Reviews INDEX SKYWAYS #51-60

64, Oct 2002 Curtiss-Wright CW-22, Pt 2 Cockpits (Elias NBS-3) ID UNK 2003 Air Tour Doering Brothers, Golden Age Model-makers Oshkosh Air Venture 2002 Flying the S-38 Reproductions & Restorations (Hughes H-I racer, laird-Turner LTR-14 My Life in Aviatiow Rolf Zurwelle Models New Board Members Reviews W&D

65, Jan 2003 Great Lakes Story (dwgs 2T-IA, -IE 2S-W, XSG-I) Very long-Range Bombers repros and restorations (dwgs Farman Goliath) Quiet Birdmen Fokker’s Josephine Ford Pt 1 Cockpits Seversky SEV -DS Doering Bros models Pt 2 Edo floats ID UNK Models Reviews W&D

66, Apr 2003 Bell FM-I Airacuda, dwgs Cockpits (Bell XFM-I, YFM-I) Reproductions and Restorations (Martin MB-2, Bellanca J, Northrop Alpha, Laird- Turner LTR-14, Me 262) From the Members (Heath Cannonball, 1st airplane blt in Atlanta) Fokker’s Josephine Ford Pt 2 The Cain Aircraft Story, dwgs Howard Pete in Syracuse ID UNK (Kanmer-Judson Air Yacht, KnollBray ton, Mummert Sportplane) Models Reviews W&D

67, JuI 2003 DH Comet- 1st Flight (dwgs) Kadiak Speedster (dwgs) N3N-3 Yellow Peril Napier-Heston Racer (dwgs) Certification Pitfalls 101 (on restoring your old a/c) Pilot Report- 1928 Travel Air 4000 Cockpits (Keystone LB- 7 and B-4A/B-6A) Light Bomber Competition of 1939 Northrop N-3PB Restoration AAA Fly-lns at Blakesburg and Brodhead ID UNK Stinson Factory in 1936 Details Curtiss XF9C-I and F9C-2 Sparrowhawk Models W&D Reviews Events

68, Oct 2003 Bellanca 77-140 (dwgs) Dare variablecamber a/c (dwgs) restoration of Sikorsdky S-39 Letters (Byrd & the North Pole) Oshkosh Air Venture 2003 Cockpits (Douglas DF) ID UNK Models W&D Reviews

69, Jan 2004 Percival Mew Gull at Reno (dwgs) Lockheed XP-38 (dwgs) Doering B-24 model restoration Illuminati US Army Air Corps “Bomber Mafia” of the 1930s Cockpits Curtiss-Wright Export Falcon National Air Tour 2003 Antique Airplane Assn Fly-ln 2003 Scott aircraft engine ID UNK Reproductions and Restorations Models W&D Reviews

70, Apr 2004 Douglas World Cruisers (dwg) Curtiss-Wright 24-B (dwgs) Aircraft Development Corp and the ZMC-2 allmetal airship (dwgs) Reproductions and Restorations Cockpits Arrnstrong-Whitworth A W-15 Aatalanta Curtiss-Wright XP-31 (dwgs) Amundsen’s Aircraft 1922-1925 From the Members ID UNK Snyder Baby Bomber Bel Air Models Models W&D Reviews

71, Jul 2004 Autogiro Rooftop Air Mail & Flight Testing Ford Flies Mrs. Lindbergh to Mexico Korvin-Kroukovsky, EDO’s Chief Engineer ID UNK: Hawke Crop Duster, Breese R-6-C, Timm Collegiate George A. Spratt Designs Cockpits-Northrop XFT-l & -2 Curtiss-Wright Tech. Institute Bunting Stearman 4-D Models Skyways Topic Index, Issues 61 to 70 Events Reviews W&D

72, Oct 2004 Hess Bros. & Hess Blue Birds Design & Construction of NC Flying Boats Siemens-Halske Waco Pioneering Predictions of Air Transport ID UNK Oshkosh AirVenture 2004 Cockpits-Fairchild F-45A Pitcairn PA-19 Cabin Autogiro Aviation Movie Publicity Stills, The Brown B-3 Models Events Reviews W&D

73, Jan 2005 USN Attack Aircraft, 1926-40 Bennett BTC-I Executive Blakesburg & Brodhead Scrapbooks Ship-Launched Airmail, 1926-1939 Henry Ford’s Flying Wing, An Update Cockpits-Great Lakes BG-I Dive Bomber Details: Great Lakes BG-I Dive Bomber Reproductions & Restorations: DH Moths, Fairchild 22 ID UNK: Starwing, Bolte LW-I , Szekely Flying Dutchman Internet: Curse or Blessing? Reviews Events W&D

74, Apr 2005 Short-Mayo Composite Hess Bros. and the Alliance Argo Design & Construction of the Curtiss NC Flying Boats, Pt. 2 Airship Model Collection Cockpits-Junkers G 38 Aviation Movie Publicity Stills USAF Museum Longwing Eaglerock More on Internet: Curse or Blessing ID UNK Models Reviews W&D

75, Jul 2005 Special issue with color cover featuring early trimotor airliners: Stinson Model A, Pt 1, Boeing Model 80A, & Fokker F.10A Stinson Model A Trimotor Airliner Curtiss-Wright Model 16 Details & Cockpits- Berliner-Joyce XP-16/Y 1 P-16/PB-I Two Place Pursuit Bonney Gull Reproductions & Restorations: Golden Eagle Chief Models Reviews W&D

76, Oct 2005 Franklin Glider story Stinson Model A Trimotor Airliner, Pt 2 Loening C4C/Keystone K-85 Air Yacht Models Oshkosh AirVenture 2005 Cockpits-Grumman XF2F-1 Navy Fighter Aviation Movie publicity stills ID UNK From The Members Racing the Laird-Turner Around the Beltway Events Master Materials List – A Great Source Reviews W&D

77, Jan 2006 Straughan-Wiley Post Model A (+dwgs) Army Single-Engine Attack A/c 1926-1940 (+dwgs Northrops) Stinson Model A, Pt 3 (+dwgs) Blakesburg & Brodhead Fly-Ins Aviation Movie Publicity Stills (Jennys, incl stunning centerspread photo!) Cockpits (Fokker F.VI/PW-5) The Truth About Curtiss-Wright’s Model 21 ID UNK dwgs (Collier Ambassador, Mercury Chic) SKYWAYS in Miniature (scale models blt up from parts of other plastic kits – remarkable!) Models From the Members Reviews W&D

78, Apr 2006 Savoia-Marchetti S.55P in an airline, 1929 Herrick Convertaplane Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum Stinson Model A Trimotor, dwgs 1926 Schneider Trophy Race Cockpits (Boeing 40-A) QED, last of the Great Gee Bees (dwgs) ID UNK Aviation Movie Publicity Stills From the Members Models Historiography (Pisano) Reviews W&D

79, Jul 2006 Navy’s No-Win Design 106 Competition (dwgs- Great Lakes XSG-1, Sikorsky XSS-2, Loening XS2L-1) The Autogyro (by John Miller) the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum Aviation Movie Publicity Stills center-spread- structural sideview of the Waco UBF Army Fairchild YF-1 Photo Plane ID UNK Details of the USN F-5LÊ (dwg) Charter to Chicago FDR’s Precedent-Setting Flight Stratoliner Model Restoration (lovely model!) Models Reviews, W&D

80, Oct 2006 Sikorsky’s S-40 Flying Boats (dwg) Oshkosh Air Venture 2006 Aviation Movie Publicity Stills (Orenco Tourister) Cockpits (Consolidated P2Y-3) Long Island Aviation Country Club Tour of the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum ID UNK (dwg Airdevil Model Co) Models From the Members W&D Reviews

81, Jan 2007 Lawson and his Airliners (dwgs) Northrop Attack a/c 1933-19367 Boeing 80 revisited (4-page dwg for display model) Cockpits (Boeing 80) Flying My OX-5-Powered Airplanes Curtiss-Wright Model 23 (cutway, small 3-view) My Flying years 1933-1935, Ages 16-18, by Ninette Heaton Bell YFM-1 Airacuda Model Models ID UNK Reproductions and Restorations SKYWAYS Topic Index #71-80 From the Members W&D Reviews

82, Apr 2007 DeHavilland DH-4M restored Dornier DO.X (dwg) ID UNK AAA Fly-In 2006 Cockpits (Curtiss SBC-3): Time Flies:The Ultimate Gee Bee (dwgs): Development of a 3-view for the Command-Aire 3C3-T, NC 583E (dwgs) Curtiss-Wright Travel Air Speedwing Restoration From the Members the Nimmo Aircraft Co (dwgs for the Stream Lion) Models W&D Reviews From Your Publisher From Your Board Events

83, Jul 2007 Curtiss-Wright Condor (dwgs) Cockpits (C-W Condor) Allen Myers & the OTW (dwgs, incl Kinner R-56 Latecoere flying boats Tom Towle (designer of the Ford Trimotor dwgs of the Towle TA-3) ID UNK From the Members Reproductions & Restorations Models W&D Reviews

84, Oct 2007 Pan Am’s Flying Boat Bases, Pt 1 Oshkosh AirVenture 2007 Curtiss-Wright T-32 Condor II, Pt 2 Stinson SM-1 Detroiter Restora-tion How Glenn Flew From St Louis to Oshkosh in Only Six Days 2007 National Waco Club Reunion Cockpits Ð Navy Curtiss SBC-4 Dive Bomber ID UNK Models From the Members Reviews W&D

85, Jan 2008 Civil Aircraft Colors Douglas DC-5 Farnborough’s Final Fighters Antique Airplane Assoc Fly-In ID UNK The Good Ship Lollipop and the DC-2 Brodhead Fly-In Maciag Av History Museum/store Pan Am’s Flying Boat Bases Part 2 Sikorsky S-42 Model Cockpits: Navy Douglas TBD-1 Torpedo Bomber USN/USMC Fighters 1930-40 Dec 7, 1941, the Other War in the Air Repros and Restorations Models Board Events Members W&D

86, April 2008 US air Mail Svc Ð 90th Anniv Fokker D.VII in US Service Canadian Car & Foundry Gregor FDB-1 Douglas DC-4E Fairchild Model 91 Amphibian Paul Rempp & his Models Pan Am’s Flying Boat Bases 3 ID UNK Repros & Restorations Cockpits: Navy Bellanca XSOE-1 Scout Floatplane Models Members Events Board Reviews W&D

87, July 2008 The Boeing Model 40B, Brodhead Scrapbook, Blakesburg Scrapbook, Cole Palen’s Great Lakes Trainer, Great Lakes Sport Trainer History, George Odenwaller, Cockpits—Douglas B-7, Spirit of St. Louis, ID UNK, Moth Major Replica, Drama on the Farm, My Bücker Jungmann, Models , From the Members, Wants & Disposals

88, October 2008 – Bob Dempster’s Douglas World Cruiser, Candler Field, Brian Karli’s Curtiss Jenny Restoration, Albessard Triavion NACA Report, Channing Clark’s 1936 Fleetwings Seabird, Great Lakes Airplanes…and Warner Engines, Scrapbook, Boeing 307, Charlie Bell’s Fairchild 22 C-7D, ID UNK /Reproductions & Restorations, Models, Photographing Dioramas, Drawings – Roche model plan, Pete rson Sporster, Retz Mono, Davis, Reviews, From the Members & 2008 Sponsors, From the Board – 2007 and 2008 Year End Reports, We Will Miss, W&D, SKYWAYS Back Issue Index #1 through #87, For Sale

89, January 2010 – Gee Bee R-2, Bleriot and Beyond…The Bleriot 110, Boeing 307 (part 2), Oshkosh 2009 – Photo Report , Scrapbook – Vintage Aviation Photos, Avro Avian – NACA report & photos, Breaking Through the Clouds: 1st Women’s National Air Derby, ID UNK, Reproductions & Restorations, Models ,Drawings – Sikorsky S-39-B, Reviews, From the Members, From the Board, W&D, For Sale

90, April 2010 – Paul Dougherty’s Curtiss JN-4D restoration, Aviation in the Newsreels, Delmar Benjamin flies the Gee Bee R-2 reproduction for Pete Miller (part 2), Register of the Davis-Monthan Aviation Field, Caudron C.460 reproduction, ARMY Wing Stripes, Blakesburg and Midwest Antique Club Meets, Dayton-Wright RB Racer, Scrapbook, Drawings (Thomas Morse MB-3 and Curtiss Condor), ID UNK – Joy JX Delta, Reproductions and Restorations, Models, From the Board, From the Members, W&D, For Sale

91, July 2010 – Italian Air Force Effectiveness Between the Wars , Stinson Model O, Chamberlin’s “Miss Stratosphere”, Great Lakes Reborn, Martin MB-2 – National Museum of the USAF, Martin MB-2 – Archaeologists Search for Wreckage, Consolidated P2Y-3 Details, Scrapbook: 1940 Photos from the Greg Bingham Collection, Gee Bee Zeta, Vintage Textbooks for the Aircraft Restorer, The Story Behind the Birth of the Franklin Aircraft Engine , Elinor Smith, Models, ID UNK, Reproductions & Restorations, New Publications, DC-3 Excerpt from Book, From the Members, From the Board, W&D, For Sale

92, October 2010 -1940 World’s Fair, New York, Tale of a Navy Tail: The Waco XJW-1, The B-29 and the Home Front Battle, The World at Her Feet: Amy Johnson Takes on Australia, AirVenture 2010, DC-2 vs. DC-3, Brooklyn’s Flying Wing :The Tuscar H-71, Scrapbook – Miscellaneous Photos from the Golden Age of Aviation, First Flying Freight to Frankfurt: A Beech Staggerwing rides the Hindenburg, Blakesburg & Brodhead 2010: Photo Report , Before Laguardia: North Beach Airport, Cockpits – deHavilland DH-4, Models, Reproductions & Restoration, Reviews, From the Members, From the Board, Wants & Disposals, For Sale

93, January 2011 – Gerry Schwam’s Dh.60 Moth, Prologue to Joy Dunkerley’s “Sometimes Eagles Wings – Saga of Aeropostale”, Potez VIII & VIIIR, Hydrogliders with Aero engines, Ross RS-1, Clarence Chamberlin…the Film: Fly First & Fight Afterward, Golden Age Nuggets – Small Treasures from the Golden Age, Maddux Airlines, Texas Air Museum, Roy Ahearn – Aerial Advertising and Souvenir Letters, Scrapbook, Fairhaven Airport/Baylies Field 1930, Sound Airways, Inc.,ID UNK, Golden Treasures – Ryan NYP – A look at the Spirit of St. Louis as it appears at NASM, Follow Ups – Fleetwings Sea Bird Follow-up to #88, Reproductions & Restorations – Curtiss Museum Curtiss Fledgling – Maniatis Comper Swift, Dempster Douglas World Cruiser, Models, Reviews, Wants &Disposals, Back Issue Index #81 to #85.

94, April, 2011 – Sperry Messenger Experiments 1921-1924 by Joshua Stoff, History of Monocoupe Model 70, NC6753 by Wayne Mikel, Martin MB10 – Looping a Martin B-10 Bomber? by Jeffery S. Underwood, Ph.D., Martin MB10 Cockpits by Roy Meyers, Martin MB10 – Photos of B-10s at Mitchel Field by Joshua Stoff, Moundsville Lone Eagle by Allan Schanzle, Chamberlin 2-S – Bill Barr & Tom Polapink, Flying with Clarence Chamberlin by Gerry Schwam, “Golden Nuggets – Three Treasures from the Golden Age” 1) Gere Sport fabric 2) Goodyear Navy Dirigible C-2 Engine Log by G.W. Hyatt 3) GA, CAL, JN’s and Me – Red Crown Gasoline Sign by David Nixon, ID UNK, Reproductions & Restorations – Roy Rehm’s Boeings, Models by Lou Buffardi, Flight Sims – Golden Age Simulation’s Stinsons by Paul Corish, Jim Douglass and Gil Halpin, From the Members, From the Board – Year End Report, W&D, Advertisements, For Sale

95, July, 2011 – Fokker Trimotor Flight – “Over the North Pole” by Floyd Bennett, The Mystery of the Josephine Ford by Jeff Maynard, Golden Treasures – Josephine Ford – Fokker FVIIA-3m by Tom Polapink, Eberhart XFG by Lloyd Jones, Roy Meyers,“That Guy” – (Those guys are: John Pike and Bob Burnham) by David Nixon, Fleet Model 2 Lands at N.A.S.M. by Dorothy Cochrane, Roosevelt Field Fleet Photo Album from The Cradle of Aviation Museum, Meet Brent Moné and his Garland Lincoln Nieuport 28 by Melinda Gay, Garland Lincoln Nieuport Status by Brent Moné, Dope on the Lincoln Stunt Plane from Popular Aviation, Jess Laughlin, Garland Lincoln Nieuport photos from Dave Ostrowski Collection, Sperry Messenger – NASM, Sperry Messenger Drawings from WWI Aeroplanes, Inc. Files, Sperry Instruments by Joshua Stoff, Reproductions & Restorations, Models by Lou Buffardi, Mattioni Botte Volante by Claudio Luchina, Building the Polikaropov by Lou Buffardi, Photo Report – Toledo 2011 by Tom Polapink, Bonus Info: Eberhart F-G-1 – Reprint from April 1927 Aero Digest, From the Members, From the Board, W&D, For Sale

96, October, 2011 – Curtiss Robin,17-1/2 Days in the Air – A.W. League, Article from Aero Digest, Sept. 1929, Joe Erale’s Curtiss Robin, NR59H, “St. Louis Robin” photo study and drawings, Hawker Cygnet Reproduction, G-EBJI – Colin Essex, Visiting Aircraft to Parks Air College – Terry Love, Tipsy Delight – Steve Slater, Oshkosh Airventure 2011 Photo Report – Dave Ostrowski & Bob Burns, Monocoupes at Blakesburg, 2011 Photo Report – Paul Stevens, Aviation and Gold, Junkers G31s in New Guinea – Michael Waterhouse, Bristol 81-A , Photos and Drawings – George Kandylakis, Patent Application: Blind Flying Device – From Brian Coughlin Collection, Models – Lou Buffardi, From the Members, From the Board, Reproductions & Restorations, W&D, For Sale

97, January 2012 – This issue features extensive coverage of the Dole Race and the Travel Air Woolaroc: Cessna builds a Monoplane by Ed Phillips, Dole Race – The Pineapple King’s Great Pacific Air Race by Burl Burlingame, Breese “Aloha” Color profile by Burl Burlingame, Clippings from Western Flying Magazine, The Dole Pacific Race, Data on the Pacific Flight Travel Air Monoplane, Data on the Breese Monoplane Aloha, Woolaroc Wins Dole Race, Woolaroc – Ed Phillips article from Vintage Aeroplane, June 1983, Comparison between the Woolaroc and the Standard Travel Air 5000, Harry Hansen’s Travel Air 5000 Restoration project by Jerry Impellezzari, Golden Treasures – The Travel Air 5000 Woolaroc – A photo study of the aircraft today from the Woolaroc Museum by Linda Stone and Ken Meek, Art Goebel in Aviation News (A Scrapbook of articles and advertisements featuring Art Goebel), Quad City International Airport by David T. Coopman, Scrapbook – More Dole Race and Travel Air 5000 photos, Brodhead 2011- Photo coverage of the Grassroots Fly-In by Paul Stevens, Reproductions & Restorations – Arup, Viking Kitty Hawk, Gere Sport, Models by Lou Buffardi, Reviews by Lou Buffardi, History Discussion between Leo Opdycke, Paul Hare, Ted Sacher, Herb Johnson, From the Members, From the Board – Year End Report, W&D, Advertisements, For Sale

98, April 2012 – Monocoupe Special Issue: Monocoupe: Speed for the Common Man, Central States 75hp “Monocoupe”, Monocoupes in the News – A variety of Monocoupe related news clippings from Yesteryear, Golden Age Air Museum’s Monocoupe 70, Velie M-5 and Velie Company Brochure, Monocoupe 113 – Cole Palen’s NC8995, Monocoupe 90 – Cole Palen’s NC429N, Helen S. Ball and NC429N, Monocoupe 90 and related advertisements, Aero Sportswomen: Phoebe Omlie, Glen Peck’s Monosport Model 2, 8989, Lambert R-266, Early Monocoupe 90As with Watters Tunnel Cowls, Ted Dilse’s Monocoupe 90A – X11735, Color Three-Views – Monocoupe 90As X11735 and NC11737, Lindbergh and Monocoupes, Monocoupe “D”, 1934, Warner “Scarab”110 hp, Warner Aircraft Corporation, Monocoupe 110, NC12350 Restoration, Monocoupe 90AW – Cam Blazer’s NX15429, Harold’s Little Mulligan – Monocoupe 90AW – Harold Neumann’s aircraft, Luscombe Phantom – 1934, Luscombe Phantom – 1937, Monocoupe Scrapbook – A variety of Monocoupes in their original 1920s and 1930s settings, Moncoupe Gallery – Restored Monocoupes photographed by Eric Presten and Dan Simenson, Monocoupes on Exhibit – A few of the many Monocoupes on exhibit in museums and airport terminals, Reproductions & Restorations – Monocoupe projects underway right now, Stan and Paul White’s Monocoupe 90As, N11768 and N18168, Monocoupe and related aircraft 3-views from Aircraft Yearbooks, Models, From the Members, From the Board, W&D, Advertisements, Miscellaneous, For Sale, Monocoupe 110 Special “Little Butch” –
N.A.S.M.

99, July 2012 – Nicholas Beazley Museum – Bryan Berlin, Demonstration Flights of the New NB Trainer – Jack Whitaker, Nicholas Beazley Advertisements from the Period, Cole Palen’s NB-8, N567Y, Nicholas Beazley related Documents and Drawings, John Edison Crowell, Armstrong Siddeley Genet Engine photos, Nicholas Beazley NB-8 photos – Dave Ostrowski, Cam Blazer’s NB-8 Project – Walter Calkins, Roosevelt Field Inn, Aviation’s Greatest Saloon – Joshua Stoff, Activities of FBOs at Roosevelt Field – George Orr (from Aero Digest, May 1934), Federico Cantero Villamil Spanish Helicopter Pioneer – Erasmo Pinero, Jr., Caproni Flying Barrel, Short History of N8917 Monocoupe 113 Warner Special and “Miss Moline” – Eddie Saurenman, Reproductions and Restorations (Rhinebeck’s Spirit of St. Louis, Mac Transtrum’s Gee Bee R-2, Brian Karli’s Curtiss Jenny, Bob Dempster’s Douglas World Cruiser “Seattle”), Models – Lou Buffardi, Mix Hummer Model – Claudio Lucina, From the Members, From the Board, W&D

100, October, 2012 – Our 100th issue of Skyways takes a look at 1920 to 1940 aviation with a photo album of images. Many of which have never been published before. Captions reference related articles and content that have appeared in our previous 99 issues, including a list of every drawing that has ever appeared in Skyways – From the OX to the Buffalo (Part 1): The Golden Age of Aviation in Photos Lincoln Standard LS5 Brochure (reprinted from original) From the OX to the Buffalo (Part 2): The Golden Age of Aviation in Photos Oshkosh 2012 Report Models A Look Back at Skyways: Editorials From the Past From the Board We Will Miss Index of Skyways Drawings #1-#100

101, January, 2013 – This issue focuses on lightplanes and flivvers of the 1920s and 1930s with reprints of articles from Aerial Age Weekly, Aero Digest and Popular Aviation. The Aerial Flivver – Charles P. Fagnani D.D., Lightplanes in past years, Flivvers, homebuilts and lightplanes in the news – Highlights from Popular Aviation, British Lightplane meet and Overseas Flivvers, Flying Flea, Terle Lightplane, Henry Hunt planes, Huntington Monoplane, Eyerly Whiffle Hen & Nicholson Jr., NuDay Monoplane, KR Midget, Smallest Racing Planes in the World – Popular Aviation October, 1936, Dope on the Heath Parasol, Pietenpol V-8 , Iowa Pietenpol, Reproductions and Restorations, Aeronca C-3 – Michael Maniatis, Golden Treasures – Ford Flivver – photo study, Ford Flivver & the Stearman Hammond, Drawings (Heath Parasol, Lincoln Sport, Prest Baby Pursuit), Models – Lou Buffardi, Publications, From the Members, From the Board, W&D

102, April 2013 – Skyways Issue #102 features Extraordinary Aircraft of the Golden Age – A compilation of articles of unique and innovative designs from early aviation magazines. We also have a special focus on the Travel Air “Mystery Ship” Model R. Articles in this issue include: 1932 Lanier Vacuplane, 1935 Lanier Vacuplane, All-Wing Planes, Guerchais Tailless Lightplane, Raoul J. Hoffman’s Novel All Wing Airplane, The “Uniplane,” an All-Wing Type, The Arup Flying-Wing, A Low Aspect Ratio Plane, The New Arup, Claudio Luchina’s Arup and flying wing models, Ben Brown Tailless, Burnelli Model UB-14, 14-Passenger Transport, C.L. Brown’s Duplex Prop, A Scissors Type Convertible Aircraft, The E.A.A. Museum’s original Bugatti 100, A brand-new Bugatti Model 100P Reproduction, Golden Age Simulations Travel Air “Mystery Ship” for FSX, “Golden Treasures” – Travel Air Mystery Ship, NR1313 at Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, The Travel Air R Mystery Ship, Pancho Barnes’ Travel Air Mystery Ship, From the Members, Models by Lou Buffardi, Stephen Wessel’s Miniature Armstrong Siddeley Lynx Radial Engine, From the Board, Wants and Disposals.

103, July, 2013 – Special Autogiro Issue: Pitcairn Autogiro PA-18, NC12680 Restoration at the Posey Brother’s Shop Pitcairn Autogiro PCA-2, NC11609, Miss Champion How an Autogiro Flies and Why Pitcairn Autogiro PA-18, NC1267B- In-flight photos by Greg Morehead Autogiros in the News – Compilation of articles from magazines of the past Pitcairn PA-19 Notes on the Problems and Progress of Autogiros Autogiros vs. Balloons in the Military Autogiros in Museums Autogiros of the Fantasy of Flight Museum Autogiros of Ford Museum Autogiros of NASM Collection/Udvar Hazy Facility Golden Age Simulations – The Pitcairn Autogiros Autogiro Scrapbook Autogiro Scrapbook – from the Cradle of Aviation Museum Autogiro Scrapbook – from the Rhinebeck Aerodrome Museum Golden Treasures – Johnny Miller’s Autogiro rotor blades Autogiro Air Mail – Commemorative Cancellations 1939 – 1940 Autogiro Drawings Pitcairn Factory Brochures Models – Lou Buffardi Claudio Luchina’s 1/72 Models W&D Advertisements How to get PDF and Print Issues of WWI AERO and SKYWAYS

104, Oct 2013 – Two Wacos in a Field: Kingston Airways – by Charles Peter Colomello Waco Fly-in 1972 – Hamilton, OH Waco YKS-7- NC17453 visits Blakesburg, IA Waco YKS-7 – A Standard History – by Tom Eggert Waco Model A Sportsman – Aero Digest March 1932 Waco Scrapbook – from the Cradle of Aviation Museum Waco Scrapbook – from the Rhinebeck Aerodrome Museum Waco Scrapbook – from the Tom Polapink Collection Waco Scrapbook – from the Gil Halpin Collection More Wacos 2012/2013 – Bob Burns Photos Waco GXE, NC4534 – Clay Hammond AirVenture 2013 – Dave Ostrowski Brodhead 2012 – Paul Stevens Bernie Siefert’s Waco art Raab-Katzenstein RK7 Goes Home Raab-Katzenstein releated stories from NY newspapers Raab-Katzenstein RK2C in photos Siemens & Halske SH12 Brodhead 2013 – Paul Stevens Reproductions and Restorations Models From the Board From the Members W&D Advertisements How to get PDF and Print Issues of WWI AERO and SKYWAYS.

105, Jan 2014 – SPECIAL DOUBLE ISSUE featuring Standard J-1 and New Standard Aircraft: Ivan Gates the Barnstorming years Jim Hammond’s Standard J-1 Poppies from Heaven – A Johnny Miller adventure in the J-1 Standard J-1 Photos of Standard J-1s in Museums and Private Collections Standard J-1 – Current List of Extant J-1s A Mercedes-Powered Standard J-1 Standard J-1 – Scrapbooks Standard J-1 – NC1004 Standard J-1 – Factory Drawings Charles Healy Day and his New Standards – New Standard Listing by c/n New Standard Scrapbooks New Standards and Liquor Smuggling Duster Heaven Slats Rogers – Duster from the Valley The White New Standards Arizona Adobe of Antiques New Standard D-25, NC149M, Flying Lady Restoration New Standard D-25 – N930V Restoration Test Flying a D-25, N930V New Standards N7286, N9119 & N9292 – Latest stories New Standard N9194 and the Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome Barnstorming Across Generations, New Standard Drawings – Aircraft Yearbook illustrations New Standard Drawings (Juanita Franzi) New Standard D-29 Planes New Standard D-29 Scrapbook New Standard D-29 – NC922V New Standard D-31 Vintage Flyers III Models Summary of New Standard add-ons for Microsoft Flight Simulator New Standard Advertisements and brochures W&D Advertisements

106, April, 2014 – SPECIAL LOCKHEED VEGA ISSUE: Lockheed Boasts Enviable Achievement Remaining Lockheed Vegas NC12288 to fly again – Excerpts from Antique Airplane Ass’n News – Brent Taylor NC12288 – First Flight Photos – Francois Bergeon NC12288 – Photo history:1933 through 1983 Golden Treasures – NASM’s Winnie Mae, Then and Now – Tom Polapink NC13705, Shell’s Vega – Gerry Schwam NC13705 – Photos from an Earlier Time –Dave Ostrowski Collection NC105W – Vega Restoration Updates- Kermit Weeks Lockheed Vega Scrapbook Choosing an Airplane Structure Between Aviators and Aerial Applicators – Charles Peter Colomello Sun-N-Fun 2014: Photo Report – Clay Hammond Touchdown at Britton Field – Photo Collage from Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome Archives Gallery of Aircraft on Edo Floats – Joshua Stoff / Cradle of Aviation Random Aircraft from the Late ‘20s and Early ‘30s – Air-istocrat, Mac Airliner, Airmaster Monoplane & the Pander Lightplane Models – Lou Buffardi Claudio Luchina’s Latest Models From the Members W&D Advertisements How to get PDF and Print Issues of WWI AERO and SKYWAYS New Merchandise from WWI AERO & SKYWAYS!

107, July 2014 – Curtiss Tanager – Several articles relating to the “World’s Safest Plane” of 1930 Curtiss Tanager Scrapbook – Photos from the Cradle of Aviation Museum Archives Curtiss Tanager in advertisements Fate of the Tanager Floyd Bennett Antarctic Flight Golden Treasures – The Floyd Bennett – Ford Trimotor NX4542 at the Henry Ford Museum The Byrd Antarctic Fairchild FC-2W2 Early Seaplane Flying – Jane Rice Long Island Seaplane Bases – Joshua Stoff Ireland Privateer Glenny & Henderson Gadfly Meyers Midget Douglas World Cruiser “Seattle II” – photos from Bob Dempster and Kurt Muller Milady Takes to the Air – Women in Avation in 1928 Models – Jim Lund, Models – Claudio Luchina From the Board W&D Advertisements How to get PDF and Print Issues of WWI AERO and SKYWAYS New Merchandise from WWI AERO & SKYWAYS!

108, October 2014 – “The Depression Issue”: Curtiss Wright Junior, NC10996 – Brian Coughlin The Financial Side – December 1929 Embarrassment of Riches National Air Show Attendance – 1931 Editorial, Western Flying – May 1930 A Club Plan that Works Operating Costs of Arrow Aircraft, May 1931 Price Isn’t Everything Depression period aviation advertisements The Lindbergh Bird – Then & Now Eye Appeal Men and Their Jobs Merchant Jim’s Dollar Day The Elastic Stop Nut 2014 Airshow Photos – Paul Stevens The Ordeal of the Naval Aircraft Factory PN9-1 – Jim Lund Models – Claudio Luchina Book Reviews – Claudio Luchina W&D Advertisements How to get PDF and Print Issues of WWI AERO and SKYWAYS New Merchandise from WWI AERO & SKYWAYS


Vintage Air

The greater Los Angeles area in the late 1920s was awash in small airfields. It was the Golden Age of Aviation, and airports, as well as aviators, clamored for attention, business and supremacy. Glendale’s Grand Central Air Terminal, which opened in 1929, boasted of the west coast’s first concrete runway. Not to be outdone, the nearby city of Burbank encouraged the construction of what was then called United Airport (today Bob Hope International), which was touted as America’s first multi-million dollar airfield. It was built and operated by the United Airport & Transportation Corp, the giant conglomerate that was later broken up to become Boeing Aircraft, United Airlines and United Technologies.

While the Grand Central Air Terminal’s opening had been a big gala affair, Burbank’s had to be bigger and better. It was a three-day event, held on Memorial Day weekend, 1930 that featured a series of air races (a total of five closed-course air races held over the three days, as air racing was much more popular sport then than it is today), as well as a mass appearance of Army aircraft, fitting since it was, after all, Memorial Day.

The original Hangar 2, which has since been moved to the far
west end of BUR, where it has housed biz jets belonging to,
among others, John Travolta and Roy Disney.
The entire 95th Aero Squadron and their Boeing P-12 “Pursuits” from March Airfield as well as the 11th Bombardment Squadron, flying Curtiss B-2 Condors and Keystone LB-7 Bombers from Rockwell Field (today’s NAS North Island, in San Diego) arrived on Saturday morning, May 30th, for massed fly-bys, as well as static display of their aircraft. Our photo shows some of these parked on the field after their arrival. A program of the festivities can be seen here. Interestingly, the P-12s are named as “Wasps” and the LB-7s as “Hornets” in the program, reflecting not the name of the aircraft, but the type of engines used.

Just past the trees, you can see the dome of the Portal of The
Folded Wings at Valhalla Cemetery, where a number of aviation
"greats", including the Wright Bros' mechanic, Charles Talyor,
are buried.
The festivities kicked off on Friday afternoon with the arrival of the two army squadrons, as well as the Goodyear blimp Volunteer. Two class air races were held, and the evening finished off with an 8:30 pm “Dance on the Roof Garden, Terminal Building”. This must have been quite the swanky affair…and oh, that the vastly remodeled Burbank terminal building still had this venue!

The main terminal building, which still stands, albeit highly
remodeled. This is where, on both the Friday and Saturday
nights of the event, VIPs could "Dance on the Roof Garden."
In the distance, to the left of the terminal, is the original Hangar
One, which like Two has been moved to the west end of the
airport. It houses the US headquarters of the regional cargo
airline Ameriflight (disclaimer: proud former employee).
On Saturday morning, two additional squadrons of Navy planes arrived, and more races were held, including a two-plane-team relay race, in which a passenger had to dash from the first plane to a second waiting one after the first lap of the race. A race for women pilots, as well as an unlimited class race was also held. The final event of the day, the William E. Boeing Trophy Race was for members of the 95th Aero Squadron. At the end of the day on Sunday, all the Army and Navy planes formed up together in one giant departing formation.

This photo also gives an interesting juxtaposition on the threshold of a crucial time in aviation history: the aircraft shown here in 1930, both the fighters and the bombers, are little changed in configuration and technology from 15 years before, in the midst of WWI. And yet a mere 15 years after this photo, there were jets flying through the sky.


Watch the video: 2 Huge Reasons Why Tons of People Will QUIT RVing in 2022 (January 2022).