History Podcasts

1st Battle of Philippi 42 BCE

1st Battle of Philippi 42 BCE


On January 16, 27 BC, the Roman Senate conferred upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus the title “Augustus,” effectively making Augustus Caesar the first Roman Emperor, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire. While previously the Romans had indeed conquered many lands, their government had been a Republic and run by the Senate until Gaius Julius Caesar (the man usually referred to as simply Julius Caesar) became Dictator of Rome, sort of a de facto king or emperor. If you notice the similarity in names between Julius and Augustus, you can be assured this is not coincidental.

Digging Deeper

Augustus was born Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 BC. The son of wealthy and important parents, Gaius became even more important when he became the adoptive son of Julius Caesar, the great-uncle of Augustus. Augustus’s own father, Gaius Octavius, was also involved in politics himself and held the rank of Governor of Macedonia when he died while traveling to Rome to run for office as Consul in 59 BC. The name change was in accordance to the normal practice in Rome of adoptive sons, although some people used the Octavius form of his original name both to differentiate him from Julius Caesar and also to slight him with a reference to his more plebeian roots. Julius had not only adopted Augustus, but also named him heir to the throne (such as it was) of Rome. When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC civil war reigned in Rome, with a monumental power struggle for the right to rule the premier civilization in the Western European World. During this period Augustus is generally referred to as Octavian until 27 BC when he was given the official title “Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus.” (Basically meaning Emperor Caesar Augustus.)

The Death of Caesar, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1867). On 15 March 44 BC, Octavius’ adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

After the assassination of Julius Caesar, Marc Antony (along with Julius Caesar’s former mistress, Cleopatra) sided with Augustus (Octavian) as heir, and after their victory at the Battle of Philippi (42 BC) over the faction that precipitated the assassination of Caesar, they divvied up Rome between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus, and ruled as dictators in a regime called the Second Triumvirate (from 43 BC to 33 BC). Squabbles among the 3 dictators resulted in further civil war and a break up of their peaceful coexistence, culminating in the Battle of Actium, won by Octavian in 31 BC, resulting in the suicide of Marc Antony. Upon hearing of the suicide of Marc Antony, and of her impending arrest by Octavian, Cleopatra also committed suicide, though not by the widely reported means of snake bite. (Lepidus had previously been deposed and exiled.)

Left as the proverbial Last Man Standing, Octavian reinstated the Republic, but only in a superficial way as he clung to absolute power. He rejected (at first) any royal title, calling himself instead, Princeps Civitatis (First citizen). By 27 BC, he had consolidated his power to the point of being named Augustus Caesar and Emperor of the Roman Empire. Though his rule was not without controversy and some strife, he instituted a period of relative peace within the Empire and established a border of buffer states and provinces to keep Rome safe. This period of peace, referred to as Pax Romana, was characterized by no major wars within the Roman Empire for the next 2 centuries. Roads were built, public works created, and tax reform instituted. A standing army was developed as were fire-fighting departments and police departments. Rome became what we would recognize as a modern state in many ways.

Augustus in an Egyptian-style depiction, a stone carving of the Kalabsha Temple in Nubia. Photograph by hu:User:Lassi.

Augustus had the opportunity to make quite an impression on Roman history, as he lived to the ripe old age of 75 (he died in 14 AD), dying of natural causes, unless rumors are true that his wife, Livia, had poisoned him! His own adoptive son, Tiberius, succeeded him as Emperor. (In the convoluted ways of monarchies, Tiberius was also the step-son of Augustus as well as the former son-in-law of Augustus.) One of the challenges Augustus faced was finding land for veteran soldiers to make homes and farms. His seizing of land owned by rich Romans alienated many of those that had to be forced to provide land to the veterans. Augustus managed to expand the Roman Empire through military action and diplomacy, including adding Iberia and Anatolia to the fold. One exception to the success of Rome under the rule of Augustus was the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 AD when a Roman army was annihilated by Germanic tribes, causing Augustus to utter the famous phrase, “Quinctilius Varus, give me back my legions!”

Caesar Augustus, or Augustus Caesar, whatever he is called, was the first of the Roman Emperors and perhaps the greatest of the lot. Rome became a great civilization and empire until it inevitably crumbled and fell as all empires do in 476 AD.

Europe and the Near East in 476 AD. Map by Guriezous.

Question for students (and subscribers): Did you think Julius Caesar was a Roman Emperor? What other Roman Emperors can you think of? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

If you liked this article and would like to receive notification of new articles, please feel welcome to subscribe to History and Headlines by liking us on Facebook and becoming one of our patrons!

Your readership is much appreciated!

Historical Evidence

For more information, please see…

Firth, John. Augustus Cæsar. Endeavour Compass, 2017.

Foster, Genevieve. Augustus Caesar’s World. Beautiful Feet Books, 1996.

The featured image in this article, a denarius minted c. 18 BC (Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS reverse: DIVVS IVLIV[S] (DIVINE JULIUS)), is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art. The work of art itself is in the public domain for the following reason: This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author’s life plus 70 years or less.

You can also watch a video version of this article on YouTube:

About Author

Major Dan is a retired veteran of the United States Marine Corps. He served during the Cold War and has traveled to many countries around the world. Prior to his military service, he graduated from Cleveland State University, having majored in sociology. Following his military service, he worked as a police officer eventually earning the rank of captain prior to his retirement.


Introduction

During the Year of the Four Emperors (69 CE), the fight between Vitellius and Vespasian would ultimately bring about the demise of four legions, the XV Primigenia, I Germanica, IIII Macedonica, and XVI Gallia. All four of these legions had previously served the Roman Empire with distinction under such leaders as Pompey and Octavian but made what turned out to be the wrong choice in 69 CE. While there remains a question concerning the loyalty of XV Primigenia, three of the legions made the mistake of supporting Vitellius.


War Council

Each Side Starts with one Line Command Card rest are randomly picked,

Assassin (or ‘Liberator’) Armies of Brutus & Cassius - Grand Total: 51 units + 6 Leaders
Leaders: Brutus & Cassius
Command: 8 Cards (use Epic Ancients Command cards Rules)

Triumvir Armies of Octavian & Antony - Grand Total: 54 units + 6 Leaders
Leaders: Octavian & Antony
Command: 9 Cards (use Epic Ancients Command cards Rules)
Move First

Players score Banners as follows:
1 Banner per enemy unit or Legate Leader eliminated
2 Banners per enemy named Leader (Octivian, Antony, Brutus, Cassius) eliminated
1 Banner if an enemy named Leader (see line above) evades off the map.
1 Banner per enemy Camp hextile removed by occupation (see terrain special rules)
½ Banner per enemy “Camp Rampart” tiles removed by occupation (see terrain special rules), --Camp Rampart tiles are noted in the setup and are made up of all noted & associated Camp Rampart hexes (see terrain setup) located only within 1 or 2 hexes of their particular Camp Tiles.
1 Banner for the Assassins for removing each Triumvir Rampart Tile by occupation located on the Cassius’ Map (these are in hexes A3, B2, C2 on the Cassius’ Map).
1 Banner for the Triumvirs for removing each Assassin Rampart Tile on the left side of Cassius’ camp by occupation (these are in hexes C6 & B6 on the Cassius’ Mapboard)
No Banners are received for the removal of Rampart Tiles of Rampart classes that are not specifically listed above (for example the Front-line Ramparts on both sides or Antony’s Triumvir Ramparts going into the swamp that are located on the Antony mapboard and any other Ramparts not associated with a camp or not listed above do not count for Banners if removed)

Special Rules
The “Marian” Command Card Decks
Historical Note: Combat in the 1st Century BC between Roman Legions was somewhat different than the wars between civilized states in the 3rd Century BC. There was less room for combined arms tactics and maneuver, and battles probably tended to be more of the nature of hand to hand full bore slugfests.
It is suggested that the Players play with two Command card Decks—Each Player draws from one deck only, so therefore the two decks are never combined during play. Also the number of cards in each deck is reduced to 52 Cards as noted below.
This particular scenario utilizes different sets of Command Card Decks than the original C & C Ancients Deck. Eight (8) Cards are removed from the original deck leaving 52 Cards for scenario play. These new decks are called the “Marian Decks”, named after Caesar’s uncle Gaius Marius, a reorganizer of the Roman Legions in circa 105-103BC (several years before Caesar was born) to meet the challenges of the Germanic Tribal invasions that threatened the Roman Imperial Republic of the time.
The following eight cards are removed before play and put aside to create each of the Marian Decks:
X4 “Order Light troops”, x1 “I Am Spartacus”, x2 “Move-Fire-Move”, x1 “Mounted Charge”---note that one Mounted Charge” card is still retained in each deck.

Special Command Rules:
All Leaders may cancel a retreat or a sword hit if present with the unit. Units on both sides involved in close combat with the support of a Leader may only count one helmet hit amongst those rolled to inflict a hit on an opposing unit unless that Leader is Anthony in which case up to two helmet hits are counted.
Only the named Leaders (Brutus, Octavian, Antony, and Cassius) can support a unit involved in close combat or battle-back in an adjacent hex. The Legate Leaders can only support or benefit a unit they are stacked with in such close-combat situations.

Units and the Rally Card: No unit can be rallied to beyond its strength at the start of the scenario. If a Player rolls “swords” when attempting to rally he may freely chose which unit gets a block back.

Line Command Cards: No more than ten foot units can be ordered by play of a single Line Command Card in the Philippi scenario.

Legionary Infantry Rules:
The following types of infantry units in the game on BOTH sides are assumed to be Roman Legionaries: Heavy Infantry, and Medium Infantry. ALL of these units are considered to be Roman Legionary Infantry.

Roman Pilum:
Each Roman Legionary Infantry unit starts with a Pilum Marker. The Pilum is a one-time use weapon that is generally fired right before a Roman Legionary unit attacks in close-combat or is itself attacked by the enemy in close-combat. Once the pilum is fired (or lost see below) –the Pilum marker is removed from the Roman unit to indicate that the pilum has been expended and the unit may not throw Pilum for the rest of the battle.
Just before a Roman unit with pilum is attacked or is itself attacked by the enemy for the very first time in the battle in close-combat it throws its pilum—roll one die and apply normal hits for swords, color, or a Flag/retreat hit Afterwards remove the Pilum marker. The act of throwing the pilum is not considered to be part of the Close-Combat—so any result of the pilum throw is resolved before the Close-combat. If two Roman Legionary Infantry units that have not thrown pilum yet engage the attacker resolves his pilum throw first. An attached Leader may use his special ability to cancel a “swords” hit that was inflicted via a pilum hit (see special Command rules) on the unit he is stacked with.
Roman Legionary units, adjacent to the enemy, that have not expended their Pilum may also be ordered to throw Pilum if the card “Darken the Sky” is played by their commanding player. The Player picks one adjacent enemy unit and throws two dice –apply the results just as one would before close combat—and remove the Pilum Marker.

Roman Relief Moves & Cohort Maneuvers:
Adjacent and on the same side Roman Legionary Infantry, instead of moving, may switch places in a “Relief/Cohort Maneuver”. Relief/Cohort Maneuvers may only be conducted through the play of Section cards ONLY. Instead of ordering one unit via a section card, the controlling Player may order a pair of adjacent Legionary Infantry units to switch hexes—at least one of the units switching places must not be adjacent to an enemy unit. A unit that switched places via the Relief/Cohort Maneuver into a hex adjacent to the enemy may close combat in the same player-turn.

Julian Legions: Legionary units on both sides can use Julian Legion movement rules. Do Not use the Marian Legion rules found in Expansion #2, as those features are taken into account more accurately via the above pilum and other rules.

Elite Legionary Infantry: Certain units in each army are designated in the army lists as Elite Heavy Infantry—they start the game with five blocks. They are considered to be the
highly experienced veterans of combat against barbarians and/or the prior civil wars—therefore if ordered via a line command or ‘heavy troops’ cards they may move up to two hexes terrain permitting and close combat.

Outflanking---This is an easy way of introducing facing and flanks to the game with little fuss—it can be retrofitted to other scenarios where appropriate:
A unit is said to be “Outflanked” if it is surrounded in all six adjacent hexes by either enemy units, or hexes adjacent to an enemy unit. The presence of friendly units or impassable terrain does not negate an “Outflanked” situation in any way. Units on the board edges (and not surrounded by six adjacent hexes) cannot be “Outflanked”.
Effects of being Outflanked: “Outflanked” units when battling back roll only half the normal number of dice they would be normally entitled to rounded up—to a maximum of only two dice—“Outflanked” units when battling back never hit on helmet rolls even if supported by a leader. A unit’s “Outflanked” situation is judged at the instant it battles back.

Special Retreat Rules for Uber-Epic Scale:
All Foot units in the game, including legionary units, must retreat 2 hexes per Flag result taken if possible. If a full 2 hex retreat cannot be taken the foot unit may make a 1 hex retreat to satisfy the very first Flag result taken as a retreat. Foot units that are unable to retreat to satisfy a Flag result lose 1 block and remain in the last hex they retreated into (i.e. they don’t lose 1 block per hex not retreated—they merely lose 1 block per Flag result not properly satisfied via retreat).
All Cavalry units in the game, regardless of type, must retreat 3 hexes per Flag result taken if possible. If a full 3 hex retreat cannot be taken the cavalry unit may make a 2 hex retreat to satisfy the very first Flag result taken as a retreat. Cavalry units that are unable to retreat to satisfy a Flag result lose 1 block and remain in the last hex they retreated into (i.e. they don’t lose 1 block per hex not retreated—they merely lose 1 block per Flag result not properly satisfied via retreat).

Special Terrain Rules: (Note the change in the treatment of hills outlined below also there is changes to several other terrain rules)
Crags: Crag Hexes are impassable they represent ravines and cliffs on the north side of the battleground.
Level 1 Hill Elevations: The map now, in effect, has contour lines of hexes showing different elevations. Basically there are two Terrain elevations in the scenario: Level 0: which includes all clear, swamp, and broken terrain on the map. Level 1: which includes all Level 1 Hills. Note: The Camp/Rampart tiles are a special separate case which are handled by the rules detailed below.
Elevation effect on close-combat and battle-back: If a unit is close-combating or battling-back against a unit at a higher elevation (or level) the “normal” maximum dice that unit may use is minus one (-1) normal.
If a unit is close-combating or battling-back against a unit at a lower elevation (or level) the “normal” maximum dice is used. If both units are on the same level and there is no other terrain considerations the units would use their standard dice as dictated by the rulebook and these scenario rules.

Camp and Rampart: General Rules
These contain modifications of the normal terrain rules—
Camp & Rampart Tiles: The initial Camp/Rampart Tiles only benefit their initial owners. If these hexes are entered by enemy units the Camp/Rampart tile is removed from the map, and Banners are scored if applicable (see Victory rules)— Camp/Rampart tiles are replaced in some cases if an Assassin one, with the appropriate Level 1 Hill tile as required. Camp/Rampart Tiles always block line of sight.
Rampart Tiles in Close-Combat/Battle-Back are treated per the normal updated rulebook rules. Camp Tiles in the scenario provide one extra dice if a foot unit battles-back (or does a first strike)from a camp tile—it provides no other benefits or liabilities to units stacked on the tile in any other type of combat.
.The Triumvir Camp/Rampart Tiles become clear terrain whenever they are removed since they were built on a lower level plain and are therefore considered at Level 0.
Assassin Rampart Tiles also become clear terrain unless they are associated with a particular army camp—in that case only these become Level 1 Hill tiles. All Assassin Camp tiles always convert to Level 1 Hill tiles if captured by the Triumvirs.
Elevation and Close-Combat (& battle-back) into or out of intact Camp/Rampart Tiles:
Never considers the underlying elevation of the works when calculating the dice used in the combat. Only use the underlying elevation rules detailed above once the works are removed by enemy occupation.

Swamp Hex General Rules:
Don’t use the marsh hex rules detailed in Expansion #2—do use the rules below only.
Foot units must stop when they enter a swamp hex and may only enter a swamp hex when ordered from a starting hex directly adjacent to the swamp hex moved to. Mounted units and Leaders moving alone pay 2 MP for only the first swamp hex entered during that move. Close-combat and Battle-Backs into or out of a swamp hex is at a “normal” 3 dice maximum (with any of the normal + for cards). Swamps do not block line of sight. Units located in swamps do not count for ‘support’ for preventing retreat by adjacent units and cannot receive support themselves from adjacent units when in a swamp hex. Cavalry units in swamp hexes may not evade if attacked in close-combat.

“The Last of the Romans”-The Cassius Suicide Watch
If Cassius is alone in a hex without a friendly unit present, and enemy units enter a hex via an ordered or momentum move one or two hexes away roll one dice to see if he commits suicide. On a roll of ‘Swords’ Casius has himself offed and is eliminated from play. The Triumvirs score 2 Banners.

Optional Rule: Adding War Machines to the Basic 2-Player Philippi Scenario:
I have left War Machines out of the basic scenario—likely the Roman sides involved had few machines as their Legions, even the veteran Legions of this era, tended to be somewhat threadbare units incorporated into what amounted to private armies. Certainly no war machines are mentioned in accounts of the battle—it is possible, however, that the Triumvirs and Assassins had some machines guarding their ramparts and camps. Incorporate the War Machines as follows as an optional rule:
Each side gets four (4) Heavy War Machine units—two per army. Set the Machines up in any friendly camp or rampart hex on the appropriate Mapboard quadrant for that army. War Machines may not be set up in or move or retreat into hexes adjacent to swamp hexes. Heavy War Machines in the scenario have a range of only four hexes maximum. War Machines can also be added into the 4-Player scenario detailed below.

The Four Player Uber-Epic Scenario:
General: In the Four Player game –each player takes the role of one of the four named Roman plutocrat/noble army commanders involved in this epic battle. Each acts as a co-commander with his historical partner, but their victory or loss in the battle is figured separately. It is possible for an overall side to lose the battle, but for a player on the losing side to win his part of the battle and the scenario in spite of that outcome. The battle still ends when the combined score of one side’s commanders reaches 30 Banners.

Marian Command Card Deck Modifications: Use the Marian Decks detailed above for the two-player game(one deck per contending side), but additionally remove the two “Outflanked”cards, and the two “Coordinated Attack” Cards from each deck. The modified Marian decks will now have 48 cards each. Line Commands still move a maximum of ten connected foot units.

Player Hands: Each Player in the four-player version has his own hand of command cards—Brutus and Cassius each have 5 cards. Antony has 6 cards and Octavian has only 4 cards. All cards are randomly picked. On each joint Player turn each allied player plays one card to move/order units of his own army only. At the end of each joint turn each of the allied players replaces the card just played from their hands from their Marian draw deck to bring their hands up to the initial hand sizes. Their initial hand sizes are, of course, also the command limits for that particular individual component army. Units from different allied armies cannot be activated by play of the same Command Card. All units activated by a particular Command Card must be from the same army. The Player commanding that army determines which units get activated from that card . There are no Field General/Army Card limits as to cards played in a section.

Victory: Each Player scores banners based on the actions of his personal army in garnering that side’s Banners. A Player receives Banners if units of his army were instrumental in securing the Banner in question. The Player controls the ordering and combats of his army units with the cards played from his hand. Once the battle is over count the number of Banners each player personally garnered with his army—that Player is the overall winner of the scenario. If the named Leader representing the player has been eliminated he subtracts 2 Banners from his personal total before the winner and any 2nd or 3rd place finishes are figured. If a player is on the side that collectively won the overall battle by reaching the combined 30 Banners level first he adds 2 Banners to his personal total before the winner and any finishers are figured.

Loaning units, Leaders & units & Trading Cards: A player with units in the Center area may lend units in that area adjacent to his co-commander’s units/leaders. They join the co-commander’s army for the rest of the scenario unless voluntarily lent back by the new owner. Any loan of units is announced at the end of their joint player-turn and takes effect immediately. The players on a single side can lend no more than two units back & forth per joint player-turn. Units with a Leader attached may not be lent. If a Leader via Movement or Evasion ends up attached to a unit from the other allied army—that unit then immediately joins the army that the newly attached Leader is part of.

Trading Cards: If the two co-commanders agree (or even if they disagree see below)-- at the end of their joint player-turn, after the new cards are drawn, they may decide privately to trade cards between their hands. A Player may give up a maximum of one card to his co-commander and must receive back one card from his co-commander in exchange. Only a single pair of cards can be exchanged in this manner per own joint turn-
one from each player. The Players can agree on the cards to be exchanged or one Player may put forth one card and his partner must provide him with one card in return from his hand. Generally, if cooperating, the players would be trading cards they are not personally in a position to use with each other, as needed, during the course of play.

Precedence: The two players, if they cannot agree between themselves as to who moves first (they in effect move together) and who does all his combats first in their joint player-turn must roll a normal six-sided die between themselves to determine who moves or combats first. High roller goes first in these joint activities. A given joint Player-turn might see two such rolls—first to see which army’s ordered units Move First . Second how combat is sequenced between the two allied forces. These activities can alternately be conducted at the same time if the inter-actions & orders of the two allied armies do not effect the possible reasonable outcomes of the game activities in question.

Card Discard Option in the 4-Player Game: A Player in the 4-Player game may decide during his joint player-turn to discard three cards from his hand and draw three new cards from the draw deck in lieu of playing a card from his hand normally to order units. If this option is taken he does nothing that player-turn with his component army units/leaders on the map. This option is not available if the named leader representing the player is not on the map. A player may exercise this option a maximum of three times per game and not on consecutive own joint player-turns and also not during the first three joint player-turns for his side in the scenario.

Note: 4-Player Changes from the 2-Player Epic Ancients rules: Field General Initiative and the other Field General/Army Commands features of the standard Epic Scale Ancients rules are not utilized in the Four-Player game—since each Player/co-commander now has his own hand of cards to play to control & order his own army in much the same fashion as the normal C&C Ancients scale game. However the First Strike Card does provide +2 Dice to the unit utilizing it just as in Epic Scale Ancients.

Mapboard Configuration and Junction Hexrow Setup:
In Uber-Epic Philippi two complete epic-scale Command & Colors play areas are utilized, a total of four mapboards, to reach an ultimate total map that sizes out at 19 hexes deep and 25 or 26 hexes wide. In addition the players have to create Junction Hexrow 25 hexes long to join the two epic scale maps along their lengths.

Creating & Orienting the Uber-Epic Player Areas:
Step 1: The Assassin Player Places one set of epic scale mapboards (i.e. two mapboards) in front of himself. The Mapboard to his left will contain the location of Cassius’ camp
(Cassius’ Mapboard), the Mapboard to the right is the location of Brutus’ camp (Brutus’ Mapboard). These two Senators of Rome each commanded their own private armies that collectively opposed those of the Triumvirs Antony and Octavian. Similarly the Triumvir Player sitting opposite his Assassin opponent places one additional epic-scale map set in front of him abutted along its length (and slightly overlapping on the edges) with the Assassin mapboards. The Mapboard to the Triumvir left is Octavian’s Mapboard, the Mapboard to the right the location of Antony’s forces (Antony’s Mapboard). The two men each also commanded their own private armies that collectively opposed those of the Assassins (or ‘Liberators’ as Cassius and Brutus styled themselves). Unlike the Assassins the two Triumvirs domiciled their forces in a single joint camp (per Appian) located, for game purposes, in the approximate middle of their Mapboards.

Step 2: Take a Command and Colors Paper map and cut out neatly one hexrow of 13 hexes and another hexrow of 12 hexes. These two hexrows are placed together in the space between the two slightly overlapped epic map areas to create a Junction Hexrow 25 hexes long between the two epic scale (Assassin and Triumvir) map areas.

Step 3 Label the Junction Hexrow hexes from the Assassin left to right as: Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4 etc. through to Z25.---They don’t actually have to be marked that way—This numbering can be used as just a mental aid so the players can visualize the setup detailed below. Hexes Z1 to Z8 are part of the Assassin Left/Triumvir Right Area. Hexes Z18 to Z25 are part of the Assassin Right/Triumvir Left Area, and the remainder Z9 to Z17 are the Center Area for both players.

Step 4: The numbering/letter system used for the epic scale map hexes for purposes of the setup detailed below is almost exactly similar to that of the original smaller single paper maps issued by GMT. Row “A” on the Assassin mapboards (those of Cassius/Brutus) directly abuts that of Row “Z” of the cutout paper Junction Hexrow and Row A is numbered A1 to A26. The mapedge hexrow closest to the Assassin player is Row “I” of the Assassin mapboards and it is numbered left to right I1 to I26 representing the back baseline hexrow that the Assassin units and Leaders retreat/evade towards. All numbering on each of the two epic scale play areas is done left to right down each hexrow in relation to the seating of the Player on that side of the boards. Examples: Hexrow “A” for the Assassins is numbered left to right from A1 to A26. Hex A1 in that row on the Assassin mapboards is adjacent to hex Z1 of the Junction Hexrow. Hex A2 on the Assassin mapboards is adjacent to hexes Z1 and Z2 of the Junction Hexrow. Hex A26 on the Assassin mapboards is adjacent to hex Z25 of the Junction Hexrow. And so forth. Hexes A1 to A13 are on the Cassius’ Mapboard. Hexes A14 to A26 on Brutus’
Similarly the hex numbering on the Triumvir mapboards is also done left to right. Hex A1 on the Triumvir mapboards (those of Octavian/Antony) is adjacent to hex Z25 on the Junction Hexrow. Hex A25 on the Triumvir mapboards is adjacent to hexes Z1 and Z2 of the Junction Hexrow. A1 to A13 are on the Octavian Mapboard. Hexes A14 to A26 on Antony’s. Row “I” of the Triumvir Mapboards, the row closest to the Triumvir player, is referenced left to right I1 to I26 and represents the back baseline hexrow that the Triumvir units and Leaders retreat/evade towards in the scenario.
The other hexrows in each of the opposing epic scale play areas goes back in depth from the Row As next to the Junction Hexrow on each side back in Alphabetical order “B to H” back to the baseline hexrows (the row I’s closest each player) just like the original C & C maps and is numbered 1 to 25 (or 1 to 26 depending on the hexrow) from that player’s vantage left to right.

Step 5 Directions and The Compass Rose: The geographical Direction to the right of the Assassin Player and to the left of the Triumvir is due North. The Direction to the left of the Assassin Player and to the right of the Triumvir Player where the swamps are located is due South. The Triumvir Player faces East in relation to where he sits—the Assassin Player faces West. So the hexagonal directional compass rose for each hex would be as in the following example: The Direction Rose in Hex Z2 on the Junction Hexrow would be like this North(N) would be into the adjacent Hex Z3, South(S) would be into adjacent Hex Z1. Northeast(NE) would be to Hex A3 on the Assassin map. Southeast(SE) to Hex A2 on the Assassin map. Northwest(NW) to Hex A24 on the Triumvir map. And finally Southwest(SW) to Hex A25 on the Triumvir map. The directions are noted in this manner in the Terrain setup to indicate which ways and into which adjacent hexes the ‘teeth’ of the rampart hex tiles face. Compass Directions are also noted in the Compass Rose Notes in the setup for Octavian’s Mapboard Terrain below.

Terrain Set-up: Note that the Terrain set-up is detailed below by Assassin/Triumvir Mapboard or quadrant of the total play area. The set-up of the Triumvir joint camp is detailed in a separate sub-section. The Junction Hexrow (row Z) Terrain is also listed separately afterwards at the end. It is suggested that the players use forest hexes to represent the swamp hexes and that they buy additional sets of terrain hextiles from GMT games or construct their own. One can also use hextiles from other Richard Borg games like ‘Battle Cry’ & Memoir ‘44 etc.. There is A LOT of terrain hextiles in the game since both sides were heavily dug in before the battle. Also see the Special Terrain rules listed in the Scenario rules below. Note that there are two Terrain Levels—Level 1 and Level 0—these are explained in the Special Terrain rules section.

Terrain Setup Triumvir Left Mapboard (Octavian’s Mapboard—located opposite Brutus):
Crags (impassable): A1, E1, F1, G1
Broken Terrain: I1, G2, F2
Front Line Triumvir Rampart: C3, C4, C5, C6, C9, C10, C11 (all face SE/NE):
Hex B2 Compass Rose Notes: The Directions from Hex B2 on Octavian’s Mapboard are as follows—North (N) is into hex B1—A2 is Northeast (NE), A3 Southeast (SE), B3 South (S), C3 Southwest (SW) C2 is Northwest (NW).

Terrain Setup Triumvir Right Mapboard (Antony’s Mapboard—located opposite Cassius):
Front Line Triumvir Rampart: C14, C15, C16, C19, C20 (all face SE/NE)
Anthony’s Triumvir Ramparts into the swamp: A23, B22, C22, D21, E21 (all face N/NE)
Swamp Hexes: A21, A22, A24, A25, A26, B21, B23, B24, B25, C21, C23, C24, C25, C26, D20, D22, D23, D24, D25, E24, E25, E26, F25, G26

Terrain Set-up of the Triumvir Joint Camp in the Middle of their Mapboards:
Triumvir Camp Hexes: G13, G14, G15, F12, F13, F14 See lines below for associated Triumvir Camp Ramparts:
Triumvir Camp Rampart hexes (located around the Camp): E12 (3 hexside N/NE/SE)
Triumvir Camp Rampart hexes (cont.): E15 (3 hexside S/NE/SE), F11 (N/NE), F15 (S/SE)
G11 (N/NE) G16 (S/SE) E13 (NE/SE) E14 (NE/SE)

Terrain Setup Assassin Left Mapboard (Cassius’ Mapboard—located opposite Antony):
Front Line Assassin Rampart (all face SW/NW): A13, A10, A9, A8,
Side Assassin Rampart: C6 (3 hexside faces S/SW/SE), B6 (2 hexside faces S/SW)
Counter-dug Assassin Rampart into the swamp: (all face SW/NW): E2, E3, E4, E5
Swamp Hexes: I1, H1, H2, G1, G2, G3, F1, F2, E1, D1, D2, C1, C3, B1, B3, B4, A1, A2, A4
Level 1 Hill Hexes: I5, I6, I7, G8, G9, G10, G11, F7, F9, F10, F11, E7, E8, E10, E12, D6, D10, D11, C7, C11, B10 (x21 Level 1 Hill Hexes total)
Cassius’ Camp Hexes: D8, D9, E9---See lines below for associated Cassius Camp Rampart hexes:
Cassius’ Camp Rampart hexes (located around the Camp): C8, C9, C10 (all face NW/SW)
Cassius’ Camp Rampart hexes (cont.): D7 (face S/SW) E11 (face N/NW) F8 (S/SW)
Triumvir Rampart (Antony’s outflanking works in the swamp area): A3, B2, C2 (face N/NE)

Terrain Setup Assassin Right Mapboard (Brutus’ Mapboard—located opposite Octavian):
Crags (impassable): A26, C26, D25, E25, E26
Broken Terrain: C25, F24
Front Line Assassin Rampart (all face SW/NW) A24, A23, A22, A20, A19, A18, A15, A14
Level 1 Hill Hexes: I25, I26, H25, G20, G21, G22, H20, F17, F18, F19, F20, F21, E17, E18, E19, E21, E22, E23, D17, D22, C18, C22, B19 (x23 Level 1 Hill hexes total)
Brutus’ Camp Hexes: E20, D20, D19---See lines below for associated Brutus Camp Rampart hexes:
Brutus’ Camp Rampart hexes (located around the Camp): D18 (face S/SW) D21 (face N/NW/NE)
Brutus’ Camp Rampart hexes (cont.): C21, C20, C19 (all face NW/SW)
Row Z Junction Hexrow Terrain Set-up:
Swamp Hexes: Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4—All the rest of the Z Junction Hexrow is Clear Terrain
Unit and Leader Initial Set-up for “The Last of the Romans”: 1st Philippi 42 BC
(Use Red Blocks for the Triumvirs, Gray Blocks for the Assassins, it is recommended that the players have two or three sets of everything or use blocks from other sets—for example Blue-Greek blocks for the Triumvirs and the Carthaginian & Eastern Kingdom Blocks for the Assassins)

The Philippi Scenario uses a version of free set-up within certain designated limits for all four Roman armies involved in the battle. Each opposing force (the Assassins vs. the Triumvirs) is divided into two separate armies. The Assassin side features Cassius’ and Brutus’ armies. The Triumvir side has Antony’s and Octavian’s armies. The armies are set-up in the following order—Cassius’ first followed by Antony’s, Octavian’s, and lastly Brutus’ army. The set-up below is detailed in that order along with the army lists
for each army. The Triumvir side moves first. A modified version of the Epic scale rules is utilized for 2-Player card play in the scenario. The division between the two armies on each side is ignored after the initial set-up. Effectively, for rules purposes in a two-player game, during the playing out of the battle scenario the armies on each side are treated as a single force so there is no need to distinguish which unit or leader belonged originally to which individual army on a side once the Epic scale battle between the Triumvirs and Assassins commences. The four-player optional rules below require the players to distinguish between which units belong to what allied army, and each player has his own hand of cards to move his own units as a variant on the standard Epic Ancients rules.

Cassius’ Assassin Army List: x27 units & x3 Leaders Total
X2 Elite Heavy Infantry (5 Blocks each-See Legionary special rules below)
X4 Heavy Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X11 Medium Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X1 Light Horse Archer Cavalry
X1 Heavy Cavalry
X2 Medium Cavalry
X1 Light Cavalry
X2 Auxillia
X2 Light Archers
X1 Light Infantry
X3 Leaders (Cassius and two legates)

Cassius’ Army Set-up: All units/leaders must set-up in hexes completely on the Casssius Mapboard only as follows:
Cassius Leader Unit—Set up on or adjacent to one of his camp hexes in a hex not containing another friendly unit—he sets up alone.
Within one hex of F2: x4 Heavy Infantry & x1 Legate
Within one hex of F4: x4 Medium Infantry
Within one hex of E6: x2 Elite Heavy Infantry
Within one hex of Cassius’ Camp hextiles: x2 Medium Infantry
Within one hex of C7: x2 Medium Infantry
All 5 units of Cassius Cavalry: In hexrows D through G only within 2 hexes of any Cassius Camp hex
Anywhere on Cassius’ Mapboard not in or adjacent to a swamp Hex: x3 Medium Infantry,
x2 Light Archers, x2 Auxillia, x1 Light Infantry, x1 Legate

Antony’s Triumvir Army List: x31 units and x3 Leaders Total
X4 Elite Heavy Infantry (5 Blocks each-See Legionary special rules below)
X6 Heavy Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X12 Medium Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X1 Heavy Cavalry
X1 Elite Medium Cavalry (4 Blocks)
X2 Medium Cavalry
X1 Light Cavalry
X2 Auxillia
X1 Light Archers
X1 Light Slingers
X3 Leaders (Antony and two legates)

Antony’s Army Set-up: Note that this army sets up fairly freely.
All of Antony’s foot units/leaders, including Antony himself, may set-up in or adjacent to any Triumvir Rampart or Camp Hextile and in whole or partial hexes on the Antony Mapboard only. They may also set-up on or adjacent to the three Triumvir Ramparts (A3, B2, C2) located on the Cassius map. No Antony foot unit/leader, however may start the game adjacent to an Assassin unit. Hexes A3, B2, C2 on the Cassius map (those that are Triumvir ramparts) must each start the game occupied by an Antony Legionary unit. Note that Antony’s foot units/leaders, within the above limits, may also setup initially on several swamp hexes on the “Z” Junction Hexrow (specifically hexes Z2, Z3, & Z4 are the ones within these limits).
Antony’s Cavalry (all 5 units) set up in any whole hex on the Antony Mapboard in Hexrows G & H only, and must be at least 3 hexes or more from any Triumvir Camp hex.
Octavian’s Triumvir Army List x23 units and x3 Leaders Total
X2 Elite Heavy Infantry (5 Blocks each-See Legionary special rules below)
X4 Heavy Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X10 Medium Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X2 Medium Cavalry
X1 Light Cavalry
X2 Auxillia
X1 Light Archers
X1 Light Infantry
X3 Leaders (Octavian and two legates)

Octavian’s Army Set-up: All units/leaders must set-up in hexes completely on the Octivian Mapboard only as follows:
Octivian Sets up in hex F12 without a unit with him—he is alone
Hexrow “C”: x4 Medium Infantry, x1 Auxillia, x1 Light Archers, x1 Light Infantry, x1 Heavy Infantry x1 Legate
Hexrow “E”: x2 Heavy Infantry, x2 Elite Heavy Infantry, x3 Medium Infantry, x1 Legate
Hexrow “F” (but not in F12): x1 Heavy Infantry, x3 Medium Infantry, x1 Auxillia
Hexrows “G”and/or H and at least 3 hexes or more from a Triumvir Camp hex: x2 Medium Cavalry & x1 Light Cavalry
Brutus’ Assassin Army List: x24 Units and x3 Leaders Total
X2 Elite Heavy Infantry (5 Blocks each-See Legionary special rules below)
X6 Heavy Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X8 Medium Infantry (See Legionary special rules below)
X1 Light Horse Archer Cavalry
X2 Medium Cavalry
X1 Light Cavalry
X1 Auxillia
X1 Light Archers
X1 Light Slingers
X1 Light Infantry
X3 Leaders (Brutus and two legates)

Brutus’Army Set-up: All units/leaders must set-up in hexes completely on the Brutus Mapboard only as follows:
Hexrow “A”: x4 Medium Infantry, x2 Heavy Infantry, x2 Elite Heavy Infantry, x1 Legate
Hexrow “B”: x1 Light Archers, x2 Heavy Infantry
Within one hex of a Brutus Camp hex: x2 Medium Infantry and the Brutus Leader
In any complete hex on the Brutus Mapboard—x1 Auxillia, x1 Light Slingers, x1 Light Infantry, and x1 Legate
Within one hex of C18: x2 Heavy Infantry, Within one hex of C16: x2 Medium Infantry
On hexrows “C’ to “G” within 2 hexes of a Brutus Camp hex: X2 Medium Cavalry
X1 Light Cavalry X1 Light Horse Archer Cavalry.

“The Last of the Romans”: History & The 1st Battle of Philippi 42BC (From Wikpedia)
The First Battle of Philippi
Antony offered battle several times, but the Liberators were not lured to leave their defensive stand. Thus, Antony tried to secretly outflank the Liberator's position through the marshes in the south. With a lot of effort he was able to cut a passage through the marshes, throwing up a causeway upon them. This manoeuvre was finally noticed by Cassius who tried a countermove by moving part of his army south into the marshes and making a transverse dam, trying to cut-off the outstretched Antony’s right wing. This brought a general battle on October 3, 42 BC.
First Battle of Philippi
Antony ordered a charge against Cassius, aiming at the fortifications between Cassius camp and the marshes. At the same time, Brutus soldiers, provoked by the triumvir’s army, rushed against Octavian’s army, without waiting for the order of attack (given with the watchword "Liberty"). This surprise assault had complete success: Octavian’s troops were put to flight and pursued up to their camp, which was captured by Brutus’ men, led by Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus. Three of Octavian’s legionary standards were also taken, a clear sign of disbandment. Octavian was not found in his tent: his couch was pierced and cut to pieces. Most ancient historians say that he had been warned in a dream to beware of that day, as he had himself written in his Memoirs. Pliny bluntly reports that Octavian went hiding into a marsh.
However, on the other side of the via Egnatia, Antony was able to storm Cassius’ fortifications, demolishing the palisade and filling up the ditch. Then he easily took Cassius’ camp, which was defended by only a few men. It seems that part of Cassius’ army had advanced south: when these men tried to come back they were easily repulsed by Antony. Apparently the battle had ended in a draw. Cassius had lost 9,000 men, while Octavian had about 18,000 casualties. However, the battlefield was very large and clouds of dust made it impossible to make a clear assessment of the outcome of the battle, so both parts were ignorant of each other's fate. Cassius moved to the top of a hill, but could not see well what was happening on Brutus’ side. Believing that he had suffered a crushing defeat he ordered his freedman Pindarus to kill him. Brutus mourned over Cassius’ body, calling him "the last of the Romans". However, he avoided a public funeral, fearing its negative effects on the army morale.
The Opposing Forces At 1st Philippi
The Triumvirs' army included nineteen legions (other legions had been left behind). The sources report specifically the name of only one legion (IIII legion), but other legions present included the VI, VII, VIII, X Equestris, XII, III, XXVI, XXVIII, XXIX, and XXX, since their veterans participated in the land settlements after the battle. Appian reports that the triumvirs’ legions were almost at full-ranks. Furthermore, they had a large allied cavalry force….
The Liberators' army had seventeen legions (eight with Brutus and nine with Cassius, while other two legions were with the fleet). Only two of the legions were at full ranks, but the army was reinforced by a levies from the Eastern allied kingdoms. Appian reports that the army mustered a total of about 80,000 foot-soldiers. Allied cavalry included a total of 17,000 horsemen, including 5000 bowmen mounted in the Eastern fashion. This army included the old Caesarian’s legions present in the East (probably with XXVII, XXXVI, XXXVII, XXXI and XXXIII legions), thus most of his legionnaires were former Caesarean veterans. However, at least the XXXVI legion consisted of old Pompeian veterans, enrolled in Caesar's army after the battle of Pharsalus. The loyalty of the soldiers who were supposed to fight against Caesar’s heir was a delicate issue for the Liberators. It is important to emphasize that the name "Octavian" was never used by contemporaries: he was simply known as Caius Iulius Caesar. Cassius tried in all ways to reinforce the soldiers’ loyalty both with strong speeches ("Let it give no one any concern that he has been one of Caesar's soldiers. We were not his soldiers then, but our country's") and with a gift of 1,500 denari for each legionnaire and 7,500 for each centurion.
Although ancient sources do not report the total numbers of men of the two armies, it seems that they had a similar strength (modern historians put the total at about 100,000 men on each side)

History & The Second Battle of Philippi: The Death of Brutus & After:(From Wikpedia)
The Second Battle of Philippi

On the same day of the first battle of Philippi the Republican fleet, patrolling the Ionian Sea was able to intercept and destroy the triumvirs reinforcements (two legions and other troops and supplies led by Domitius Calvinus). Thus, the strategic position of Antony and Octavian became quite serious, since the already depleted regions of Macedonia and Thessaly were unable to supply their army for long, while Brutus could easily receive supplies from the sea. The triumvirs had to send a legio] south to Achaia to collect more supplies. The morale of the troops was boosted by the promise of further 5,000 denarii for each soldier and 25,000 for each centurion.
On the other side, however, the Liberators’ army was left without his best strategic mind. Brutus had less military experience than Cassius and, even worse, he could not obtain the same sort of respect from his allies and his soldiers, although after the battle he offered another gift of 1,000 denarii for each soldier.
In the next three weeks, Antony was able to slowly advance his forces south of Brutus’s army, fortifying a hill close to the former Cassius’ camp, which had been left unguarded by Brutus.
Second Battle of Philippi
To avoid being outflanked Brutus was compelled to extend his line to the south, parallel to the via Egnatia, building several fortified posts. Brutus defensive position was still secure, holding the high ground with a safe line of communication with the sea and he still wanted to keep the original plan of avoiding an open engagement while waiting for his naval superiority to wear out the enemy. Unfortunately, most of his officers and soldiers were tired of the delaying tactics and demanded another attempt at an open battle. Probably both Brutus and his officers feared the risk of having their soldiers deserting to the enemy if they did not keep their ascendancy on the troops. Plutarch also reports that Brutus had not received news of Domitius Calvinus' defeat in the Ionian Sea. Thus, when some of the eastern allies and mercenaries started deserting, Brutus was forced to attack on the afternoon of October 23. As he said "I seem to carry on war like Pompey the Great, not so much commanding now as commanded." The battle resulted in close combat between two armies of well-trained veterans. Arrows or javelins were largely ignored and the soldiers packed into solid ranks fought face-to-face with their swords, and the slaughter was terrible. In the end, Brutus’ attack was repulsed, and his soldiers routed in confusion, their ranks broken. Octavian's soldiers were able to capture the gates of Brutus’ camp before the routing army could reach this defensive position. Thus, Brutus’ army could not reform making the triumvirs’ victory complete. Brutus was able to retreat into the nearby hills with the equivalent of only 4 legions. Seeing that surrender and capture where inevitable he committed suicide the next day. The total casualties for the second battle of Philippi were not reported, but the close quarters fighting likely resulted in heavy losses for both sides.

Aftermath
Plutarch reports that Antony covered Brutus' body with a purple garment (or his expensive scarlet cloak see below) as a sign of respect: they had been friends. He remembered that Brutus had placed as a condition for his joining the plot to assassinate Caesar that the life of Antony should be spared. Many other young Roman aristocrats lost their life in the battle or committed suicide after the defeat, including the son of great orator Hortensius, and the son of Cato the younger and Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus (the father of Livia, who will become Octavian’s wife). Porcia, Brutus’ wife, also killed herself by swallowing a red-hot coal when she received news of the defeat. Some of the nobles who were able to escape negotiated their surrender to Antony and entered his
service (among them Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus and Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus). Apparently, the nobles did not want to deal with the young and merciless Octavian.
The remains of the Liberators’ army were rounded up and roughly 14,000 men were enrolled into the triumvirs army. Old veterans were discharged back to Italy, but some of the veterans remained in the town of Philippi, which became a Roman colony (Colonia Victrix Philippensium).
Antony remained in the East, while Octavian returned to Italy, with the difficult task of finding the land to settle a large number of veterans. Despite the fact the Sextus Pompeius was controlling Sicily and Domitius Ahenobarbus still commanded the republican fleet, the republican resistance had been definitely crushed at Philippi.
The Battle of Philippi probably also marked the highest point of Antony's career: at that time he was the most famous Roman general and the senior partner of the Second Triumvirate. Antonys life was defined in this moment!

Quotes
Plutarch reports the famous Brutus’ vision of a ghost a few months before the battle. One night he saw a huge and shadowy form appearing in front of him when he calmly asked, "What and whence art thou?" it answered "I am thy evil genius, Brutus: we shall meet again at Philippi." He met again the ghost the night before the battle. This episode is one of the most famous in Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar.
Plutarch also reports the last word of Brutus, quoted by a Greek tragedy "O wretched Virtue, thou wert but a name, and yet I worshipped thee as real indeed but now, it seems, thou were but fortune's slave."
Augustus’ own version of the Battle of Philippi: "I sent into exile the murders of my father, punishing their crimes with regular tribunals, afterwards, when they made war to the Republic I twice defeated them in battle". Qui parentem meum [interfecer]un[t eo]s in exilium expuli iudiciis legitimis ultus eorum [fa]cin[us, e]t postea bellum inferentis rei publicae vici b[is a]cie. Res Gestae 2.

Historical Note: The Final Act of the Battles of Philippi:
“As he stood over Brutus’s body, Antony uttered a few words of reproach for the fate of his brother Gaius, whom Brutus had put to death in Macedonia in revenge for the murder of Cicero. But he declared that Hortensius was more to blame for this action than Brutus and gave orders for him to be executed over his brother’s tomb. Then he threw his own scarlet cloak, which was of great value, over Brutus’s body and commanded one of his freedmen to make himself responsible for its burial. When he discovered later that this man had never burned the cloak with Brutus’s body and had stolen most of the money which should have been devoted to the funeral, he had him put to death” (from Chapter 22 of Plutarch’s Life of Antony).


Years: 1469 BCE - 1954 Subject: Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: 2012
Current online version: 2012 eISBN: 9780191737923

Go to Thutmose III in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Kadesh, battle of (1300 bc) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Saul in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Arabs in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Nebuchadnezzar in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Greek-Persian wars in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leonidas (480 bc) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Salamis, Battle of (480 bc) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Plataea, battle of (479 bc) in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Aegospotami, Battle of in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leuctra in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Chaeronea in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Grānīcus in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Darius III (c.380–330 bc) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to quinquereme in The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Punic wars in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lake Trasimene, battle of (217 bc) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cannae, Battle of (216 bc) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Zama, battle of in Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Teutons in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cimbri in The Oxford Classical Dictionary (3 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to proscriptions in The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Crassus, Marcus Licinius in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Vercingetorix in A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Pharsalus, Battle of (48 bc) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mark Antony (83–30 bc) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Actium, Battle of (31 bc) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Teutoburger Wald, battle of (ad 9) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Adrianople, battle of (378) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Attila (d. 453) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Camel, Battle of the in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Husayn ibn Ali (680) in The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Poitiers in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Clontarf, battle of (1014) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Macbeth (d. 1057) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stamford Bridge, battle of (1066) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Harold II (c. 1022–66) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Manzikert, Battle of (1071) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Hattin, battle of (1187) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Alexander Nevsky (1220–1263) in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Golden Horde in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mongol empire in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Largs, battle of (1263) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Montfort, Simon de, Earl of Leicester (c. 1208–65) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Montfort, Simon de, Earl of Leicester (c. 1208–65) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wallace, William (d. 1305) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wallace, William (d. 1305) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Robert I (‘the Bruce’) (b. 11 July 1274) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to halberd in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Crécy, battle of (1346) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Poitiers, Battle of (19 September 1356) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Kulikovo Pole, battle of (8 September 1380) in The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Batalha (Portugal) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ottoman empire in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Sweden in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tamerlane (1336–1405) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Teutonic Knight in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry V (b. 16 Sept. 1387) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Varna in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Castillon, battle of (1453) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wars of the Roses in The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charles the Bold (1433–77) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Henry VII (1457–1509) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to James IV (b. 17 Mar. 1473) in The Kings and Queens of Britain (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis I (1494–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Francis I (1494–1547) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babur (1483–1530) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Protestant in The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Babur (1483–1530) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Zwingli, Ulrich (1484–1531) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (2 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Humayun (1508–56) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to galley in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lepanto, Battle of in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Frederick V (1596–1632) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gustavus II (Adolphus) (1594–1632) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gustavus II (Adolphus) (1594–1632) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to English Civil War (1642–49) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to English Civil War (1642–49) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to English Civil War (1642–49) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charles II (1630–85) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Fronde (1648–53) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Boyne, Battle of the (1 July 1690) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charles XII (1682–1718) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Austrian Succession, War of the (1740–48) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stuart, Charles Edward (1720–88) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to French and Indian War (1754–1763) in The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Braddock, Edward (1695–1755) in The Oxford Companion to American Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wolfe, James (1727–59) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Seven Years War (1756–63) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to ‘Heart of Oak’ in The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Trenton, battle of (1776) in The Oxford Companion to British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to American Revolution in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Cornwallis, Charles, 1st Marquis Cornwallis (1738–1805) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Valmy, Battle of (1792) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Valmy, Battle of (1792) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Napoleon I (1769–1821) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Pyramids, Battle of the (21 July 1798) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Nile, battle of the (1798) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marengo, Battle of in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Nelson, Admiral Horatio (1758–1805) [Hist.] in The Oxford Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Austerlitz, Battle of (1805) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Vimeiro, battle of (1808) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Wagram, Battle of (1809) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Borodino, Battle of (7 September 1812) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Vitoria, Battle of (21 June 1813) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lake Erie, Battle of (10 September 1813) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Thames, Battle of the (5 October 1813) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leipzig, Battle of in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Waterloo, Battle of (1815) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Navarino, Battle of in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Crimean War (1853–56) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Charge of the Light Brigade (1854) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Inkerman, battle of (1854) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Solferino, Battle of (24 June 1859) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to American Civil War (1861–65) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Merrimack in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Shiloh, Battle of (1862) in The Oxford Companion to United States History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Bull Run, Second Battle of in The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Antietam, Battle of in The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Gettysburg, Battle of (1–3 July 1863) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Little Bighorn, Battle of in The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Majuba Hill, battle of (1881) in The Oxford Companion to British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Omdurman, battle of (2 September 1898) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Magersfontein, battle of (1899) in The Oxford Companion to British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to British Expeditionary Force in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Tannenberg, Battle of in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marne, Battles of the in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marne, Battles of the in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marne, Battles of the in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ypres, Battles of (1914–18) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ypres, Battles of (1914–18) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to chlorine gas in The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to flame-throwers in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Loos, battle of (1915) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Mesopotamian campaign in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Verdun, Battle of in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Jutland, battle of (1916) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Somme, Battle of the in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Vimy Ridge, Battle of (9 April 1917) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Lawrence, T(homas) E(dward) (1888–1935) in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Ypres, Battles of (1914–18) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Caporetto, Battle of (24 October 1917) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Passchendaele, Battle of in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Marne, Battles of the in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Allenby, Edmund Henry Hynman, 1st Viscount (1861–1936) in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Plate, Battle of the River (13 December 1939) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Britain, Battle of (1940) in A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Barbarossa (22 June 1941 – Dec. 1941) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Barbarossa (22 June 1941 – Dec. 1941) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Midway Island, Battle of (4 June 1942) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to El Alamein, Battles of (1942) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Guadalcanal, battle for (1942–3) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stalingrad, Battle of (1942–43) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to El Alamein, Battles of (1942) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Stalingrad, Battle of (Sept. 1942 – Jan. 1943) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Paulus, Friedrich (b. 23 Sept. 1890) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Guadalcanal, battle for (1942–3) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Imphal, battle of (1945) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Leyte Gulf, Battle of (Oct. 1944) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Okinawa, Battle of in The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Okinawa, capture of in The Oxford Companion to World War II (1 ed.)

See this event in other timelines:

Go to Indochina War (1946–54) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.)


Vercingetorix Finally Surrenders To Julius Caesar At Alesia

Today on October 3, 53 BCE, Vercingetorix, the ever-defiant rebel leader, finally surrendered to Julius Caesar following the epic Siege of Alesia.

The Siege of Alesia was one of Julius Caesar’s greatest military achievements. The Romans were in the midst of the ten-year conquest of Gaul (largely represented by present-day France). By 53 BCE, Caesar and his veteran legions had conquered most of Gaul, making him one of the greatest generals in Roman history. However, several pockets of resistance persisted throughout the countryside. A major revolt broke out led by the ferocious Gallic leader known as Vercingetorix. As a competent and outspoken commander, Vercingetorix managed to rally the various Gallic tribes against one common purpose - to defeat Rome.

While Gallic forces had some initial success against the Romans, they were ultimately forced to retreat and take refuge in the hilltop fortress of Alesia. Caesar pursued the rebel forces and laid siege to Alesia. He immediately ordered a massive siege construction, which encircled the entire fortress with two walls. The first wall would ensure no food or supplies could enter the city. The second wall would provide a defense against any reinforcements from attacking the Romans.

The Gauls attacked the outer wall with a relief force while Vercingetorix simultaneously attacked the inner wall. Their brave attempt failed to break the Roman lines as Caesar led and inspired his loyal soldiers himself during the attack. The next day Vercingetorix surrendered, ending the intense Siege of Alesia.


Give me back my Legions - the Life of Varus

Despite the renowned efficiency of the Roman war machine, the military history of ancient Rome is littered with defeats and embarrassments. The defeats of Cannae, the Teutoberg Wald, and Adrianople have been modernly recognized as the three most infamous wounds ever inflicted on the pride of the Roman legionary. Perhaps moreso than the other two, the defeat in the Teutoberg Wald was the fault of one man's colossal stupidity. That man was Varus, and his blunder may well have pushed Rome's first emperor into a period of temporary insanity.

Publius Quinctilius Varus was born in 46 BCE, at Cremona in northern Italy. His father was Sextus Quinctilius Varus, a senator who had aligned himself with the Pompeians during the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey. Whether Sextus saw any military action against Caesar is unclear, but he was obviously forgiven or overlooked upon Caesar's victory and the death of Pompey.

Varus would have been a toddler in the care of his nurse, likely a female Greek slave, in 44 BCE, when Julius Caesar was infamously murdered by a senatorial conspiracy. Though Sextus Quinctilius Varus still held onto his conservative values, there is no evidence he was one of the conspirators. Either way, his sympathies with them outlasted the death of the dictator. In 42 BCE, little Varus' father fell on his own sword in the aftermath of the Battle of Philippi, for fear of Octavian's repercussions.

Varus grew to manhood without a father figure, and courted the favor of the very men his father had opposed. Varus became a vocal supporter of Octavian, who in 31 BCE became Caesar Augustus and the first Roman Emperor. The course of Varus' early career has gone unrecorded, but we may safely assume that it was typical of a young Roman of senatorial family. His family's influence and wealth had already long passed its zenith even before its patriarch commited suicide Varus would have to find his own path to success in what had become the Roman Empire.

He found that path by being a vocal supporter of Augustus' regime, and by courting the friendship not only of Augustus, but also Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. In 14 BCE, he married Vipsania Marcella, the daughter of Agrippa, an event that reveals the depth of the acceptance he had found in Augustus' inner circle. The year before he had been given a legionary command in Rhaetia, his first taste of military experience in which he may have seen service against unruly Celtic tribesmen.

Varus' rise to influence was rapid. The year after his marriage, he was a joint consul with Tiberius, step-son to Augustus. One year after that, 12 BCE, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa died. This marked the end of a career that had helped pave the way for Augustus' own rise to power. Varus was chosen to deliver Agrippa's eulogy at the old soldier's funeral. It was perhaps the greatest moment of his life, yet it has been virtually forgotten by history due to the controversy and horror that awaited him.

Sometime around 8 BCE, Varus was the governor of the province of Africa, governing from a seat in Carthage. His term in Africa was short before he became the governor of Syria, a capacity in which he was serving in 4 BCE. In that year, Herod the Great, the infamous client-king of Judea, died of a miserable disease. Revolt broke out in Judea, some of it led by Herod's former slave Sh'mon of Perea, who claimed to be the Jewish Maschiach.

Varus took legionary detachments from Syria into Judea to crush the rebellion. He did so swiftly and with brutality that earned him the utmost contempt of the Judeans. When retaking Jerusalem from the rebels, Varus is said to have ordered the crucifixion of no less than 2000 Jews he subsequently marched his army back to Syria.

Hatred of Varus was not limited to the Judeans. He was a harsh and oppressive governor, and likely a corrupt one he levied crushing taxes and was unflinchingly brutal and merciless where matters of crime and punishment were concerned. Though he was intended to be a representative of the 'Augustan Golden Age' and the Pax Romana to the provincials, his revolting conduct against both the Jews and the Syrians would have made him more at home during the reign of Nero, or perhaps in the anarchy of the late Republic.

The events of Varus' life in the years between his posts in Syria and Germania are obscure. He was recalled to Rome from Syria - apparently not on charges of brutality or corruption, as he evidently still enjoyed the favor of Augustus - and he appears to have spent the better part of a decade in the Capital.

Varus' wife, Vipsania Marcella, died during or shortly after his time in Syria. The circumstances surrounding her passing are obscure, but she must have been a young woman - modern scholars place the date of her bith as 27 BCE, making her nineteen years her husband's junior. Tacitus cryptically remarked that all of Agrippa's children were killed in battle, starved to death, or poisoned. Whether this was truly intended to include his daughter is unclear.

Varus remarried before his tenure in Germania began. His new wife was Claudia Pulchra, a great niece to Augustus who was of patrician birth on both sides of her family. Pulchra, like Vipsania, was considerably younger than her husband - it is believed that she was born in 14 BCE, the same year Varus and Vipsania married! She was probably in her late teens or early twenties when she married Varus - who was himself around fifty at the time. Yet the marriage produced at least one child, who was named Publius Quinctilius Varus for his father - in 27 CE, he would be disgraced and executed by the corrupt Praetorian prefect Sejanus, his death marking the extinction of the family.

The first seven years of the 1st Century CE saw heavy campaigning in Germania by a succession of Roman generals, including Tiberius, Drusus, and Germanicus. In 7 CE, Germania was declared a province of the Roman Empire, with the tribes therein defeated, and Tiberius marched south to Illyria. There, an outbreak of mutinies amongst auxiliary units had morphed into an ugly war required the presence of the Imperial prince and his veteran legionaries. From 7 to 9 CE, the Illyrian Revolt would preoccupy the ruling class of Rome, and cause its military a number of heartaches.

In 7 CE, Varus was dispatched to his first provincial post in at least a decade. One wonders if Augustus deliberately held him in Rome for so long, in the hopes that the ugly reputation he earned in the East would die down. Either way, Varus began his journey to Germania, as a man who had seen no significant military service except against the Judean rebels, and as one who had spent at least a decade indulging in patrician luxury. He was not destined to thrive in barbarian country.

Little is known of Varus' actions in Germania until the summer of 9 CE. At that time, he was stationed near the River Weser with three legions, the 17th, 18th, and 19th, as well as auxiliary units and Germanic scouts. Here, he learned of an outbreak of rebellion along the Rhine. He sought counsel from his Germanic allies, and received conflicting reports. Arminius, a young prince of the Cherusci tribe who had been raised by Romans and was now commanding a force of mounted Cheruscan nobles, offered his assistance in guiding Varus' army to the trouble area. Another chief of the Cherusci, Segestes, tried to warn Varus not to trust Arminius, telling him that the Cherusci were among the tribes in revolt. Varus chose to believe Arminius, and sealed the fate of himself and his army.

In September, Arminius was guiding Varus' army through the dense forest modernly known as the Teutoberg Wald, which had been turned into a veritable swamp by heavy rainstorms. It was then that the Cherusci, under the guidance of Arminius, and their allied tribes sprung their trap. Accounts of exactly what happened vary, but in a three-day running battle through the Wald, the Roman army was annihilated virtually to a man. Three legions were destroyed, and the captives were allegedly sacrificed to Germanic gods.

Varus himself commited suicide fairly early in the fighting, sensing that disgrace and death were inevitable. His body was discovered by Arminius in the aftermath of the slaughter. Arminius had the head cut off and sent this, along with Varus' signet ring, to Maroboduus, the Roman-allied chieftain of the Marcomanni. Arminius tried to coax the Marcomamnic leader into an alliance by offering this obvious proof of his own abilities, but Maroboduus responded by sending the head and ring to Rome for burial.

Though all three legionary eagles lost in the Wald were eventually recovered, and though the power of the Cherusci was eventually broken, the damage to Rome's power and prestige had been done. The Empire was forced to reevaluate its previous optimistic policy in Germania, and Augustus seems to have suffered a nervous breakdown. He was said to had neglected his own hygiene for months after the disaster, and went around his house, banging his head against doors whilst shouting "Varus, give me back my legions!"

Publius Quinctilius Varus died just like his father - he took his own life, rather than face the consequences of his choices. He died as an experience Roman stateman and a favorite of the first and greatest Emperor, but he also died as a corrupt governor, a man capable of monstrous cruelties, and, arguably, as a coward. The legacy of his failure would be felt long after his decomposing head was escorted to Italy by a party of barbarian horsemen.


Octavian’s Propaganda Campaign

To destroy Antony, Octavian understood, he would need to first undermine his support and, to do that, he struck at Cleopatra – not through military might but through words. Octavian was informed that Antony’s will was kept in the temple of the goddess Vesta, which was tended by the Vestal Virgins. Octavian arrived there and demanded they surrender the will, which they refused to do but gave him leave to take it if he wanted as there was really very little they could do to stop him.

Octavian read the will to the Senate and Assembly, pointing out that Antony planned to leave a sizeable inheritance – which by rights belonged to the people of Rome – to a bastard son whom Cleopatra claimed was Caesar’s and the three children Antony and Cleopatra had together. He further encouraged the belief that Cleopatra had seduced Antony through charms and spells, bewitching him, and had him under her control – through supernatural means – just as she had done earlier with Caesar. Octavian’s plan worked and the people – and Senate – blamed Cleopatra for all of Antony’s recent failings. The Senate then declared war on Cleopatra which Octavian’s propaganda spun as a mission to save Antony from her enchantment.


Carthage’s Other Wars — Carthaginian Warfare Outside the “Punic Wars” Against Rome — Review

Dexter Hoyos has taken a look at something that has very poor coverage, namely Carthage’s Other Wars. We are all aware of the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome and to a lesser extent, Carthage’s attempts to expand into Sicily and the conflict that arose with Syracuse among others.

The popular image of Carthage is as a maritime, mercantile state that fought a couple of wars against Rome, eventually losing and setting Rome up to to be the only major power in the Mediterranean.

Carthage’s Other Wars – Carthaginian Warfare Outside the ‘Punic Wars’ Against Rome written by Dexter Hoyos (published by Pen & Sword Military, on 18 September 2019, ISBN: 9781781593578 and 235 pages long) sets out to look at Carthage’s other wars.

According to Timaeus the Sicilian Greek, Carthage was founded in the 38th year prior to the first Olympiad, which in modern terms dates the foundation around 814/13 BC. The city was, according to legend, founded by Dido, who was fleeing from the Tyrian King, Pygmalion. She travelled through Cyprus then on to North Africa. Her alternative name in the stories of the time is Elissa.

While there is not a great deal of Carthaginian text, with the exception of Hanno’s Periplus (sea voyage) in Greek translation and referring to the journey west of the Strait of Gibraltar and down Africa’s West coast, there is information in other sources and Hoyos refers to Herodotus, Aristotle, Diodorus of Sicily who referenced Ephorus, Timaeus of Sicily and Philistus. Pompeius Trogus wrote a history that survived to later times and was abbreviated in Justin’s works. Plutarch provided information on Carthage’s involvement in Sicily and Polybius translated Carthaginian texts of Carthage’s treaties with Rome.

The contents of the book are:

  1. Sources of Knowledge
    1. Carthaginian remnants
    2. Greek and Latin Records
    1. Foundation and footprint
    2. The Carthaginian republic
    3. Trade and business
    4. Merchants, landowners, commoners and slaves
    5. Friends, neighbours and potential foes
    1. Carthage’s navy
    2. The army
    3. The defences of Carthage
    1. Malchus: fiction or fact?
    2. Malchus: victories, revenge and ruin
    3. The Magonids: ’empire’ builders?
    4. The expedition of ‘king’ Hamilcar
    1. The aftermath of Himera
    2. A new Sicilian war: the first expedition of Hannibal the Magonid
    3. Carthage victorious, 406-05 BC
    1. Uneasy peace, 405-398
    2. Himilco vs Dionysius
    3. Mago vs Dionysius
    4. Mago and Himilco against Dionysius
    5. Last war with Dionysius
    1. Carthage and the turmoils of Sicily
    2. The arrival of Timoleon
    3. Sorting out sources
    4. The enigma of Mago
    5. The battle at the Crimisus
    6. Gisco and peace
    1. The advent of Agathocles
    2. Agathocles frustrating Carthage
    3. Carthage at war with Agathocles
    4. Africa invaded
    5. The destruction of Hamilcar
    6. The destruction of Ophellas and Bomilcar
    7. Agathocles fails in Africa, wins in Sicily
    8. The end of the war
    1. The woes of post-Agathoclean Sicily
    2. The war with Pyrrhus
    3. Hiero of Syracuse
    1. Libya: subjects and rebels
    2. The Truceless War: origins and outbreak
    3. Horrors of the Truceless War
    4. Carthage’s victory
    5. Barcid Carthage’s Spanish empire

    There is also a Concluding Chapter, List of Plates, Maps, Preface and Acknowledgements, Abbreviations and Reading, along with Endnotes and Index.

    The writing style of Hoyos is quite easy to read and flows well. He examines the sources and secondary readings critically and well, although I did have some trouble locating some of his references (for example, Connolly (1981) is referenced in Carthage’s Navy’s endnotes but there is no reference to his works in the reading list (I could reasonably guess that we are referring to Connolly, Peter (1981), Greece and Rome at War, Macdonald Phoebus Ltd).

    Having said that, the book is a solid piece of research into a little covered area of Carthaginian history. I have had an interest in Carthage since the mid-1970s but most of my previous reading was around the Punic Wars. This has opened an entire other area of interest to me in Carthaginian History.

    Best of all, the book is currently on special at Pen and Sword – and it is well recommended.

    Share this:

    Like this:


    Quintus Labienus

    Quintus Labienus was a Roman commander at the end of the Roman republic who allied with the Parthians. He was the son of Titus Labienus – the eminent commander of Caesar during the Gallic Wars and a later supporter of Pompey in the civil war – who died in the battle of Munda in 45 BCE.

    After murder of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, there was another civil war in which the forces of the “Caesarian” camp clashed (Mark Antony, Gaius Octavian, Marcus Lepidus) and “Republican” (Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus). There was a clash at Philippi in 42 BCE, as a result of which Cassius and Brutus died or took their lives.

    Young Labienus, being involved on the optimists side, tried to rebuild the Caesarian opponents’ camp. To this end, he wanted to use the Parthian Kingdom neighboring the Republic. To avoid pursuit and revenge, according to the message of Festus (Brewiarium of the history of the Roman people, 18), he fled to the Party. Cassius Dion, in turn, claims that Cassius and Brutus had sent him before the battle of Philippi to the Party asking for military support. The Parthian King – Orodes II – was waiting for the outcome of the battle and did not want to be active at this stage. With Antony taking independent and unpopular rule in the east, Labienus began to encourage Parthians to attack the border provinces. Party forces invaded Syria hoping that the inhabitants of other Roman provinces will stand up against Antony and not oppose the invasion. Command of the Parthian army was taken by Labienus and the son of the king – Pacorus I 1 .

    Labienus along with the party army first invaded Phenicia and attacked the city of Apamea. There, he managed to occupy the area without major fighting – mainly soldiers fighting earlier on the side of Cassius and Brutus were stationed in the region. Only Lucius Decidius Sax took up the fight, who first fled to Antioch, and then, under the pressure of Labienus, was forced to go to Cilicia. There he was captured and killed. Cilicia and Syria were subordinated, and only the city of Tyr maintained its position. The Parthians also invaded Judea, where they established Antigone on the throne in place of Jan Hirkan II.

    Interestingly, Labienus, winning the next victories, adopted the nickname Parthicus, which was definitely against logic, because the nickname itself meant “conqueror of the Parthians”.

    Cassius Dion and Plutarch agree that Mark Antony was extremely slow in his decisions. In 40 BCE he devoted himself to his lover Cleopatra and life in luxury in Egypt.

    While Antony was indulging in such trifles and youthful follies, he was surprised by reports from two quarters: one from Rome, that Lucius his brother and Fulvia his wife had first quarrelled with one another, and then had waged war with Octavius Caesar, but had lost their cause p205 and were in flight from Italy and another, not a whit more agreeable than this, that Labienus at the head of the Parthians was subduing Asia from the Euphrates and Syria as far as Lydia and Ionia.

    Plutarch from Cheronea, Life of Antony, 30

    Finally, while in Greece, he decided to send his baked – Publius Ventidius Bassus – to take action against Labienus and the Parthians. Bassus was extremely effective in its activities. Labienus was shocked by Bassus’ speed of movement and was forced to retreat from Asia to Syria. Bassus followed him to finally deploy troops in the Taurus Mountains opposite the fortified enemy forces. Labienus expected Parthian support when Bassus waited for heavy infantry reinforcements. Finally the fight ended with Bassus’s decisive victory. The Parthans left Syria and Judea, from which terrified Antigone escaped.

    According to Florus, eventually a clash of Roman forces with the Parthis took place between the Euphrates and Orontes rivers in 39 BCE. The battle ended with the victory of Bassus over an army of 20,000 Parthians and in the eyes of the Romans she was considered to be the answer to the tragic defeat of the defeat of Crassus in 53 BCE In the battle the son of the Parthian king – Pacorus and Labienus.


    Watch the video: Η Μάχη των Φιλίππων. (January 2022).