Galen


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Galen (129-216 CE) was a Greek physician, author, and philosopher, working in Rome, who influenced both medical theory and practice until the middle of the 17th century CE. Owning a large, personal library, he wrote hundreds of medical treatises including anatomical, physiological, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic works. With principles based on his anatomical dissections, he spoke and wrote extensively on the anatomy of the body emphasizing the role of the heart, brain, and blood. While he criticized many of his contemporaries, he embraced the ideas put forth by the Greek physician and theorist Hippocrates (460-370 BCE), primarily his concept of the four humours that controlled the human condition: blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile.

Much of our knowledge of early medicine comes from Galen's writings. Like Hippocrates and other theorists Galen believed that illness was caused by an imbalance, so how does one restore the balance: bleeding, enemas, and vomiting. Aside from his writings on medicine, he wrote extensively on language, logic, psychology, ethics, and even moral philosophy. Regrettably, most of his works no longer exist or survive only in fragments. He lost many of his writings, instruments, and medicines in a storeroom fire in 192 CE.

Early Life & Education

Galen believed that the knowledge of anatomy was vital to a physician.

Born in 129 CE in the Asia Minor city of Pergamon, Galen was the son of the wealthy architect Nikon and was initially educated in both rhetoric and philosophy. The Pergamon of his youth was home to a sanctuary dedicated to the god of medicine Asclepius. His father, a member of the Roman elite, had assisted in the renovation of Pergamon's temple complex dedicated to Zeus. At the age of 16, Galen changed educational directions, possibly at the suggestion of his father, and decided to study medicine, eventually completing his schooling at both Smyrna, located on the Aegean coast, and Alexandria where he studied both anatomical science and physiological theory. At the time Alexandria was the premier center for the study of medicine in the ancient world. After the death of his father in 149/50 CE, he continued his studies as he traveled throughout the Mediterranean. In 157 CE he returned to his home town of Pergamon to be the physician to a group of gladiators; a position that provided him with an opportunity to study anatomy.

Career in Rome

Despite the opposition to his unorthodox behavior, as his knowledge and skill became evident, he began to treat many of Rome's most influential citizens. Eventually, he became the court physician for the emperors Marcus Aurelius (r. 161-180 CE), Commodus (r. 180-192 CE) and Septimius Severus (r. 193-211 CE). Being a student and practitioner of Stoic philosophy, Emperor Marcus Aurelius called him the “best of physicians and the first of philosophers.” To Galen, a good physician also had to be a good philosopher. His autobiography On My Own Opinions speaks on the correlation between the two. Having returned to the city in 169 CE, he remained there until his death in 216 CE - the exact date and place of burial are unknown.

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Philosophy

Echoing a modern day-theory, for optimum health, Galen recommended exercise, a balanced diet, good hygiene, & bathing.

Bordering on agnosticism - he was an avowed monotheist - he said it was impossible to know if the gods existed, how many there were, or even if the soul was mortal. While he may have had doubts about the existence of the gods, he believed that medicine was an exact yet human science. To Galen, the body was an orderly construct of nature. Echoing a modern day-theory, for optimum health, he recommended exercise, a balanced diet, good hygiene, and bathing. His arguments about the structure of the body went far beyond the theories fostered by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Galen's beliefs were founded on the theories of Herophilus and Erasistratus. Herophilus (330-260 BCE) of Alexandria established a school of anatomy in Alexandria and was one of the first to conduct dissections of human cadavers in public. He wrote on the nervous system, the pulse, as well as the valves and chambers of the human heart. Herophilus agreed with the accepted theory that an imbalance of the humours caused disease. His disciple and collaborator Erasistratus (315-240 BCE) was one of the first to distinguish between the arteries and veins. Like Herophilus, he conducted public dissections as well as studied human respiration, the nervous system, and muscular activity.

Galen's interests ranged from the study of blood and the heart to tuberculosis and even cancer. Galen demonstrated a profound allegiance to many of the theories of the Greek philosopher Plato. The early Greeks and Egyptians typically believed that the brain had no psychological significance and that it was the heart that was the primary source of an individual's intelligence, emotions, and sensations. Concerning the human heart, Plato challenged these cardio-centric views and said the heart had no cognitive significance. There was a tripartite explanation for the relationship of the soul and body in which parts of the soul - mind, spirit, and desire - are located in the heart, brain, and liver. Galen reinforced these ideas when he said it was the brain that was the center of sensation, speech, intellect, and consciousness.

Unfortunately, Galen also believed that anger was due to the excess of bile in the heart. Aside from his studies of the nervous system, Galen also wrote on cancer or 'karkinos' a word meaning crab. As with other Greek and Roman physicians, Galen believed the characteristic tumors of cancer - he identified 61 kinds - were due to an excess of black bile. The latter was an idea that would go unchallenged for more than 1500 years. Galen, like Hippocrates, was against any attempt to remove a tumor, believing the risk of death outweighed the possibility of a cure.

Although he supposedly left Rome during the first phase of the Antonine Plague (an odd decision for a physician), further outbreaks would provide Galen with an opportunity to demonstrate and expand his skills as a physician. During an outbreak of what some believe to be smallpox in Rome, Galen was able to study and write on individual cases, giving detailed descriptions of its symptoms. However, in countless cases, he had to battle the archaic beliefs of many of the early physicians. One example of this was with the cure for tuberculosis or 'phthisis' a word meaning “a dwindling away.” Many Greeks ascribed its causes to “evil airs.” The cure, according to the early Romans, was to bathe in human urine, drink elephant's blood, or eat wolves' livers.

Many of his theories concerning the heart and blood circulation would continue to be the norm until the studies of William Harvey in the 17th century CE. Adding to Herophilus' and Erasistratus' theories on the heart, Galen questioned how the blood flowed from the right to the left ventricle and from the veins to the arteries. He believed there were “invisible pores” that allowed the blood to seep through the walls of the heart. Galen also proposed a theory that the veins, carrying dark blood, originated in the liver where it was supplied with nutrients. This blood eventually reached the lungs and heart. This new (now red) blood having been infused with “vital spirits” flowed through the arteries to give the body life. It was the arteries, not the heart, which propelled blood through the body. Galen even studied the pulse, classifying its rhythm and differentiating between its irregularities, whether it was relaxed, racing, regular or erratic.

Works

Galen wrote most of his life. His works comprise an estimated ten percent of all surviving Greek literature written before 350 CE. These works cover topics on medicine, philosophy, and linguistics. Many of these writings are listed in the two volumes entitled On His Own Books and On the Order of His Own Books. Among the best-known are:

  • On the Art of Medicine
  • Of the Atrabilis or Black Bile
  • Is Blood Naturally Contained in the Arteries
  • On the Elements According to Hippocrates
  • The Best Doctor is also a Philosopher
  • On Anatomical Procedures
  • On Good and Bad Humours
  • Of the Method of Curing Diseases
  • On the Powers and Mixtures of Simple Remedies
  • A Concise Treatment on the Pulse

Legacy

For over 1500 years after his death, Galen's treatises were read and studied throughout Europe. The physician, philosopher, and author had studied those who had preceded him: Herophilus, Erasistratus and most of all the great Greek Hippocrates. He embraced their work especially that of Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, who first studied the causes of disease. Centuries later, Galen adopted his concept of the four humours: blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm. This notion, of course, would be disproven during the Age of Science with the work of such people as Vesalius and Harvey. And, like many of his predecessor, Galen believed that every physician, for the benefit of his patients and the human race, find out everything that he can about the human body. And, for this reason, he conducted numerous dissections - at first on animals but later on cadavers. It was these studies that caused him to agree with Plato's assessment that the brain, not the heart, was responsible for human emotion, speech, and intellect. His studies of the nervous, heart and circulatory systems, although flawed, had surpassed anything previously known. While his skills as a physician brought him to the attention of the Roman emperors, they also brought the ire of his peers - possibly causing him to leave Rome and return home for a few years.

His writings, often criticized by these peers, were collected by Islamic scholars, eventually making their way into the laps of the universities and physicians of the Middle Ages. However, nothing written, especially those items penned during the 2nd century CE and before, could be studied or read without the approval and scrutiny of the Church. Luckily, the Church fathers approved of Galen's work. Although an avowed monotheist - never professing allegiance to Christianity - Galen believed the body was the creation of one god. This fell in line with the Church's belief that God created humankind. To Galen, the human body was the orderly construct of nature or in the Church's eyes - God. However, since the Church prohibited dissections, Galen's theories would go on unchallenged. And because he was so strongly accepted, his theories would not be disputed. Today, however, most of Galen's theories have all but been disproven. Modern doctors, though, must accept his recommendation of exercise, a balanced diet, good hygiene, and bathing. However, many of his ideas concerning the circulatory system and the role of the veins and arteries have long been shown to be incorrect. So, why should we remember him? Galen challenged the norm. He did not accept the theories of his peers - ideas based on conjecture and not study or experimentation. Galen revolutionized the study of medicine, and for this one should be grateful.


The ‘Galen’ group of physicians in an image from the Vienna Dioscurides he is depicted top center.

Galen and Hippocrates. Galen of Pergamum, left, with Hippocrates on the title page of Lipsiae (1677), a medical book by Georgii Heinrici Frommanni. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland

Galen’s Opera omnia, dissection of a pig. Venice, 1565

A drawing of a Hippocratic bench from a Byzantine edition of Galen’s work in the 2nd century AD


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Claudius Galen


Claudius Galen was a Greek physician who went to Rome and revived the ideas of Hippocrates and other Greek doctors. The Romans had shown little interest in the work of Hippocrates and it took Galen to push it forward in Rome.

Galen was born in 131 AD. He was a gifted intellect who studied at the famous medical school in Alexandria in Egypt. At the age of 28, Galen became the surgeon to a school of gladiators but in 161 AD he moved to Rome apparently with the sole intention of seeking fame and fortune. He certainly achieved his fame but for some Romans this became too much. As a Greek, many Romans viewed Galen with suspicion and in 166 AD, he was forced to flee the city. Two years later he went back to the city in response to an invitation by the emperor. With this protection, Galen remained in the city until his death, aged about 70, in 201 AD.

Galen revived the methods favoured by Hippocrates and other Greek doctors who lived at the time of Hippocrates. He put great emphasis on clinical observation – examining a patient very thoroughly and noting their symptoms. Galen also accepted the view that disease was the result of an imbalance between blood, phlegm, yellow bile and blood bile. Galen also believed in the healing power of nature and he developed treatments to restore the balance of the four humours. Galen believed in the use of opposites – if a man appeared to have a fever, he treated it with something cold if a man appeared to have a cold, he would be treated with heat. People who were weak were given hard physical exercises to do to build up their muscles. People who had breathing problems due to a weak chest were given singing exercises.

Galen extended his knowledge of anatomy by dissecting pigs and apes and studying their bone structure and muscles. Galen was also interested in human anatomy but there is no evidence that he dissected human bodies – though rumours persisted that he did. In “On Anatomical Procedures”, Galen advised his students to dissect apes but take whatever opportunities that existed to study the human body. Galen also studied how the body worked, concentrating on the movement of blood and the working of the nervous system. For the latter, he experimented with the spinal cords of pigs.

Galen’s influence was great. Protected by the emperors, he could work free from his jealous rivals in Rome. Galen also believed that his knowledge should be shared and he was a prodigious writer of books. These books were still being used in the Middle Ages and, for many medical students, they were the primary source of information on medicine.


Personality and traits [ edit | edit source ]

The intelligent scientist Galen Erso

Galen Walton Erso was a highly intelligent, humble, and kind man. Noted for his intricate scribbles illegible to nearly everyone except himself, Galen was a noted perfectionist. As a child, Galen never fit in with other schoolchildren, often staying to himself when he could. Galen was noted to talk a good game, albeit it was his innate shyness talking. Galen held a greater fear of attention than he did of failure. Upon meeting Orson Krennic in the Republic Futures Program, the two instantly bonded despite their personality differences. With Galen being shy and composed, and Krennic charismatic and known for his nocturnal prowling. Despite this, the two shared a close bond, with Galen declaring Krennic as "bright and talented as anyone in the Futures Program." Other classmates also referred to him as "a master of the invisible connection between things." Galen later mentioned that "mathematics is our efforts to crystallize the unglimpsed connections between things." Krennic even defended Galen from the bullies that picked on him during his time on Brentaal. Ώ]

As Galen entered puberty, he found himself confused and perplexed by the changes occurring to his body. After meeting Lyra on Espinar, Lyra had to be the one to make the first move, but Galen and Lyra quickly fell in love, sharing an extremely strong bond and a stable, healthy relationship. From this relationship, Galen realized for the first time that he was not the cold, mathematical man he thought himself, but that he had a heart as well. Lyra admired Galen's ability for a breath of knowledge, facility for sustained attention and his ability to seemingly become lost in deep thought, seemingly leaving the world for a few moments and returning to it with answers and insight no one could have expected. Despite this, Galen felt no need to demonstrate his gifts or to be groomed as an academic or scientist. Unlike some others, Galen would have been content to simply be a merchant, content to explore life and the material world in his own fashion, allowing his mind to wander where it would without being beholden to anyone. Additionally, Galen felt no initial desire to attend the Futures Program at all, feeling that he already held the entire galaxy in his thoughts. Ώ]

Galen was not one to hold a grudge, as noted toward his response to Roman Herbane during his time employed by Helical HyperCom. Despite frequent arguments, Galen felt sympathy for the man, knowing that he was simply a victim of his own stubbornness, lack of foresight, and limited intelligence. Deeply loving and caring for his family, Galen was willing to work for the Separatists while imprisoned on Vallt if his wife willed it, valuing her safety and comfort above his own. Galen would frequently converse with his wife as to the nature of his current research, simplifying and simplifying it until she could understand what he was so excited about. Ώ]

With the rise of the Galactic Empire, Galen began to isolate himself once more in his work, becoming distant from Lyra and his daughter. Galen initially believed the Emperor's story of a "Jedi Rebellion" having occurred, and believed that his research into kyber crystals was not dishonorable to the Jedi, but allowing the galaxy to learn of some of the secrets it had held secret for centuries. An ardent pacifist, Galen refused to have any of his research weaponized, whether it be for the Republic or the Empire. Despite this, he was fooled into joining Project Celestial Power believing that the Emperor sought to create a source of clean, renewable energy for developing worlds. However, Galen ultimately became suspicious of Krennic's motives and listened to Lyra's warnings about him. Angered that his research had been weaponized, Galen retreated to Lah'mu, where he strove to eke out a simple existence. When his family was threatened once more by Orson Krennic, Galen reluctantly joined the Tarkin Initiative to protect Jyn. Engineering a weakness into the Death Star, Galen hoped his sacrifice would allow the Rebel Alliance to destroy the thing he unwillingly spent half his life to build. Ώ] Γ]


4. Logic: Historical Contribution

We have devoted considerable attention to the importance of logic for Galen in relation to the theory of demonstration and early intellectual training. Some account should also be given of his contribution to the broader theoretical study of logic, because&mdashalthough not of similar relevance to epistemology or the theory of science&mdashthis contribution is, at least arguably, of considerable historical importance.

Certain caveats must be given at the outset. Galen&rsquos most important work in this area, Demonstration is lost to us except for fragments (though a shorter work, the important Introduction to Logic (Inst. Log.), does survive) and the precise nature of Galen&rsquos innovations, and final views, is a matter of debate amongst experts (for an overview, as well as an account of different views, see Morison 2008). In an area of great technical complexity and interpretive difficulty, we can here attempt no more than the briefest summary of the main issues and points of discussion. These may be said, broadly, to revolve around the questions of the nature and extent of the originality of Galen&rsquos contribution, and of the way in which he draws upon the work of both Aristotle and the Stoics.

Galen&rsquos commentary on Aristotle (in a way consistent with the approach considered in §3.5) involves not just explication but also addition. He claims that in his commentary on the Categories (again, unfortunately lost) he added an eleventh category to Aristotle&rsquos ten: that of &ldquocomposition&rdquo. In the context of Aristotelian syllogistic logic, meanwhile, there is some suggestion that he felt it necessary to posit a fourth figure in addition to the Aristotelian three. In fact, there seems considerable doubt concerning both the value of such a fourth figure and Galen&rsquos authorship of it (Morison 2008: 85&ndash91) a preferable interpretation may be that references to this &ldquofourth syllogism&rdquo are not to a new categorization within the system of Aristotle&rsquos simple syllogisms, but rather (more interestingly) to an original attempt at the analysis of compound syllogisms, which Galen apparently carried out with specific reference to certain arguments in Plato.

No less interpretively challenging is the material concerning the other main areas of Galen&rsquos contribution, those relating to hypothetical logic and to the &ldquorelational syllogism&rdquo. The subject again resists non-specialist summary but it seems uncontroversial, at least, (a) that Galen engages in detail with Stoic hypothetical syllogistic (b) that he attacks the Stoics for particular aspects of their use of it and (c) that this attack is in some way related to his own insistence on the priority of &ldquothings&rdquo over &ldquoexpressions&rdquo (a motto which runs through much of Galen&rsquos other work, too, in the context of discussions of language). A final area of complexity and doubt concerns the relational syllogism, the introduction of which Galen claims as his innovation at Inst. Log. 16. What seems clear is that Galen brought this new type of syllogism forward in response to what he perceived as inadequacies in both Aristotelian and Stoic logic also that he believed it to be of particular relevance for proofs in geometry and mathematics. An example of a relational syllogism&mdashfrom which such relevance is indeed clear&mdashis:

Theo has twice as many possessions as Dio
but Philo has twice as many possessions as Theo
therefore, Philo has four times as many possessions as Dio.

(One puzzling feature of relational syllogisms as presented by Galen is that he apparently sometimes does and sometimes does not mention the relevant axiom on which the syllogism depends, as part of the syllogism.)

Experts have found Galen&rsquos theoretical contribution to logic not only interpretively problematic, but also ultimately frustrating in its failure both to give a clear and consistent account of itself and to fulfil its ambition systematically to provide what is missing in the pre-existing tradition. What does seem clear is that Galen made a distinctive and in some ways influential and challenging contribution in this area, responding in an original way to both the Aristotelian and the Stoic logical tradition and that even in the most abstract realm of logical analysis he retained a concern for the practical value of logic and its relatedness to things.


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Greatest Physician of the Roman Empire

Galen was the greatest physician of ancient Rome. Whereas Hippocrates laid the foundation of Greek Medicine, Galen further developed its theory and practice, and carried Greco-Roman medicine to its zenith.
Claudius Galenus, or Galen, was born in Pergamum, an old Greek city on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, or present day Turkey, in the year 130 A.D. Pergamum was an ancient center of learning and medicine, having an Asclepion and a famous library that second only to the one in Alexandria.
Galen was born into the lap of luxury, which afforded him ample time to study. His father Nicon, a wealthy architect, quickly recognized his son's brilliant mind and took a keen interest in his education, hiring the best tutors in all the arts and sciences.
When Galen was just a boy, his father had a dream in which Asclepius appeared to him and told him to let his son study medicine. And so, the young Galen went to the local Asclepion to be trained by its elder physician-priests. Galen remained a lifelong devotee of Asclepius.
When Galen was 19, his father died, which sent him on the journeyman phase of his medical education. He first studied in Smyrna, or present day Izmir, Turkey, and then traveled to Alexandria, where he finished his studies. His medical training in Alexandria made him an empiricist.
Galen's first post was as a physician and surgeon to the gladiators in Pergamum, which gave him considerable skill and knowledge in the fields of anatomy and surgery. From there, he went to Rome, where his great skill and ability quickly attracted the attention of the influential and elite. Galen became the personal physician to the emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Galen was a master of medical philosophy, and considered the study of philosophy to be essential to a physician's training. Philosophy enables the physician to discern between truth and illusion, or between reality and mere surface appearances, which is so important in diagnosis. It's also necessary for putting treatment on a sound ethical foundation.
Although he wasn't a Christian, Galen was a monotheist he believed that the body was the physical vehicle for the indwelling soul. Galen's monotheism greatly enhanced the acceptance of his medical theories and teachings by later generations of Muslim and Christian scholars and physicians.
Galen's chief contributions to the theory of Greek Medicine were his theories of the three varieties of pneuma, or vital energy, and the Four Faculties of the organism. He also developed and expanded the humoral physiology and pathology of Hippocrates.
Proper organ function was very important to Galen's views on anatomy and physiology. He tended to view health as the balanced, harmonious, optimal functioning of all the organs and systems of the body.
Galen believed in the Aristotelian doctrine that, in Nature, form follows function. If we want to understand the function of an organ, tissue or body part, we must first study its form. That's why Galen considered anatomy to be so important.
Galen was fanatical in his pursuit of anatomical knowledge. He conducted dissections and vivisections on animals, chiefly apes, to figure out by inference and experiment how the human body was structured, and how it worked.
By clamping the ureters of living apes and watching the kidneys swell, Galen concluded that the kidneys produce urine. By cutting or stimulating various spinal nerve roots, he figured out which organs and muscles they controlled.
Galen is most admired by modern medicine for being a brilliant anatomist who was way ahead of his time. Living so long ago, with so little previous knowledge to go on, it's amazing what Galen figured out in fact, he almost got it all right.
In pharmacology, Galen developed a system of Galenic degrees, which enabled physicians and pharmacists to gauge more precisely the effects of a medicinal substance. In the preparation of medicines, Galen considered increased quantity to be a poor substitute for poor quality of the ingredients. Galen personally visited the exotic locales where many key ingredients of his medicinal formulas were produced to better understand matters of quality.
Galen's most famous medicinal formula was Theriac, an herbal jam or electuary with some 64 differnt ingredients that was a virtual panacea or cure-all for many diseases, and an antidote to many poisons. Theriac's use and manufacture continued until the late 19th century. Since Venice was a key center for its manufacture, it is sometimes called Theriac Venezian, or Venice Treacle. Today, Theriac Venezian is a key ingredient in Swedish Bitters, an herbal elixir popularized by the Austrian herbalist Maria Treben.
Galen was also an expert on the pulse many consider him to be the originator of pulse diagnosis. He wrote a treatise on the subject, entitled De Pulsibus.
Being a lifelong devotee of Asclepius, Galen was a firm believer in the healing and diagnostic power of dreams. He even wrote a treatise on the medical interpretation of dreams.
Galen was a prodigious author, and wrote some 80 different medical treatises. Today, many of them have been lost.
Galen is often criticized for being egotistical, but perhaps in his case it was well-deserved. His writings are full of long-winded refutations of his rivals and critics, whose partial knowledge and fallacious reasoning he despised.
Galen considered the profit motive and the love of money to be the worst reasons for becoming a physician. Being independently wealthy, money mattered little to him. He was only after two things: dedication to relieving the suffering of humanity and the pursuit of medical excellence.
For over a thousand years after his death, Galen, with his prodigious accomplishments, was considered to be the gospel truth, the ultimate authority on all matters medical. Medieval medical authorities dogmatically agreed: If Galen figured it all out, why look any further? This was indeed to prove a mixed blessing for the history of medicine. It wasn't until the Renaissance that Galen was finally questioned and his errors uncovered.


Biography [ edit | edit source ]

Cold War [ edit | edit source ]

Early career and the Planet Prison [ edit | edit source ]

A human male, Galen became an agent in the Republic Strategic Information Service—the primary intelligence agency of the Galactic Republic—sometime during the Cold War with the Sith Empire. Around 3643 BBY, he was stationed on the Republic capital of Coruscant, and headed the SIS base in the Senate Tower. When the design files for the Planet Prison superweapon were stolen by a team of thieves, the Mon Calamari General Var Suthra placed Galen and his team in charge of the investigation. Galen coordinated his search efforts with the Coruscant Security Force, but the SIS agent led the investigation and reported directly to General Suthra.

Galen's investigation soon proved fruitful, as his agents were able to identify one of the thieves from a security recording— a Rodian named Vistis Garn. Galen then went straight to Suthra, who was speaking with the Jedi Masters Bela Kiwiiks and Orgus Din, Orgus' former Padawan, Kiwiiks' current Padawan Kira Carsen, and Doctor Eli Tarnis, the creator of the Planet Prison. Learning that Galen had a lead, Din ordered his former Padawan—now a Jedi Knight—to work directly with Galen, while the Jedi Masters and Suthra went to speak with the Supreme Chancellor Dorian Janarus. Kiwiiks also suggested that Carsen remain behind, as her security expertise could prove useful. Galen then explained his lead to the two young Jedi and Doctor Tarnis: Garn, who was known to work with the criminal Migrant Merchants' Guild, had recently been spotted raiding a military warehouse for high-grade munitions and weapons.

The Knight and the astromech droid T7-O1 headed to the Guild-controlled Old Galactic Market to recover the weapons and design files, while Galen remained at the Senate Tower and worked with Carsen to distract the criminals with Coruscant's security network. However, while the Knight and T7 were successfully recovering the stolen files and weapons, Galen and Carsen encountered a security breach. Somehow, members of the Black Sun criminal syndicate infiltrated the Senate Tower's security and kidnapped Doctor Tarnis right under the SIS's noses. When the Knight contacted Galen to report success, the agent brusquely ordered the Jedi back to the Senate Tower to aid in the search for Tarnis. Galen was disturbed to learn that Garn had been in fact hired by Black Sun to steal the files in the first place, and handed the recovered files off to his subordinate Krand for decryption

Just as Galen was explaining the situation to the Knight, he received a holocall from Carsen, who had pursued the kidnappers to the nearby spaceport with CSF forces. She and the security team had pinned down the kidnappers in Docking Bay 84, but they were unable to make any more progress. Galen ordered the Knight to go aid Carsen, and together the two Jedi were able to defeat the Black Sun members and discover that Tarnis had been taken to Black Sun territory.

Tracking the Black Sun operatives who had supposedly kidnapped Doctor Tarnis, Β] the Jedi Knight discovered that Tarnis was in fact a Sith Lord and the son of Darth Angral. With this revelation all of the Republic's superweapon projects were in danger. Γ] Galen left Coruscant shortly after that to secure the Power Guard Enhancement System on Nar Shaddaa. Α]

Power Guard project [ edit | edit source ]

Galen became a Power Guard for the rest of his life

As soon as he settled down on Nar Shaddaa and began his work, Galen was captured by the Sith Lord Sadic. Sadic then turned Galen into a Mark III Power Guard and forced Galen to obey his commands by punishing him with extreme pain if he refused. In a final act of defiance, Galen turned on Sadic and the other Power Guards. However, they were too powerful and Galen was severely wounded. ΐ] Galen would survive, however, and learned how to control his implants with help from the SIS. Using his new abilities, Galen would go deep undercover into Sith space. He contacted the Knight who had saved him and told them about his assignment, thanking the Jedi for showing Galen that he still had something to live for. Δ]


Warning Sheridan about Prince Vintari [ edit | edit source ]

Galen approached Sheridan once again in 2271, to warn him of another threat to Earth. In 30 years' time the Emperor of the Centauri Republic, Dius Vintari, will destroy Earth, as they are the only people standing in the way of the expansion of the Centauri Republic. Galen informed Sheridan that "there are ways to fix this", and thus Sheridan should kill Vintari. Sheridan arranged for himself and Vintari to visit Babylon 5, and make the final approach to the station in a pair of Starfuries. Galen arranged for a "malfunction" in Sheridan's weapons system by which Vintari's Starfury would be destroyed. However, before this occurred Sheridan realized Galen used the word "ways" rather than "way". So Sheridan disarmed the weapons system and instead started a friendship with Vintari, in the hope that he could show him that Earth was no threat to the Centauri. Although Galen warned Sheridan this path is by no means certain and may fail, he all but admitted that it was what he really intended Sheridan to pursue. He then disappeared once again. ⎚]


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